This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2008)
|Part of a series on|
|Women in society|
On many ships, women (as well as young boys) were prohibited by the ship's contract, which all crew members were required to sign. Because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such and disguised themselves as men; examples include Anne Bonny, associated with Captain Calico Jack's ship, and Mary Read. A notable female pirate who commanded as a woman was Ching Shih.
This article contains a list of female pirates who are recognized by historians, listed in the time period they were active.
|Queen Teuta of Illyria||232–228 BC||Illyrian||Active in the Adriatic Sea|
|Rusla||Norwegian||Fought against her brother Thrond for the thrones of both Denmark and Norway. Possibly fictional. Recorded in Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum (History of the Danes). Johannes Steenstrup linked her to the Ingean Ruadh (Red Maid) of Irish folklore.|
|Stikla||Norwegian||Sister of Rusla. Became a pirate to avoid marriage. Recorded in the Gesta Danorum.|
|Princess Sela||c. 420 A.D.||Norwegian||Sister of Koller, king of Norway. Horwendil (later to be father of Amleth/Hamlet) was King of Jutland but gave up the throne to become a pirate. Koller "deemed it would be a handsome deed" to kill the pirate and sailed to find the pirate fleet. Horwendil killed Koller and later killed Sela, who was a skilled warrior and experienced pirate, to end the war. Recorded in the Gesta Danorum.|
|Alvid||Norwegian||Leader of a group of male and female pirates. Also recorded in the Gesta Danorum.|
|Wigbiorg, Hetha and Wisna||c. 8th century A.D.||Norwegian||All three are listed in the Gesta Danorum as sea captains. Wigbiorg died in battle, Hetha became queen of Zealand, and Wisna lost a hand in a duel.|
|Alfhild a.k.a. Ælfhild, Alwilda, Alvilda, Awilda||post-850 A.D.||Swedish||Existence is disputed. Often wrongly dated to the 5th century.|
|Ladgerda||c. 870 A.D.||Norwegian||Ladgerda is the inspiration for Hermintrude in Shakespeare's Hamlet.|
|Æthelflæd A.K.A. The Lady of the Mercians||872–918||911–918||English||Eldest daughter of Alfred the Great of England. Became the military leader of the Anglo-Saxons after her husband's death in battle against the Danes in 911. Took command of the fleets to rid the seas of the Viking raiders.|
|Jeanne de Clisson||1300–1359||1343–1356||Breton||The "Lioness of Brittany". A Breton woman who became a pirate to avenge the execution of her husband. Attacked only French vessels.|
|Elise Eskilsdotter||d. 1483||1460s–1470s||Norwegian||A Norwegian noble who became a pirate to avenge the assassination of her husband and son. She operated outside the sea of the city of Bergen.|
|Grace O'Malley, "The Sea Queen of Connaught"||1530–1603||Irish||Grace O'Malley was Queen of Umaill, chieftain of the Ó'Máille clan and a pirate in 16th century Ireland. She is an important figure in Irish folklore, and a historical figure in 16th century Irish history, and is sometimes known as "The Sea Queen Of Connaught". Biographies of her have been written primarily in the 20th and 21st centuries by historian Anne Chambers.|
|Sayyida al Hurra
(full name Sayyida al-Hurra ibn Banu Rashid al-Mandri al-Wattasi Hakima Tatwan)
|1510–1542||Moroccan||Allied with the Turkish corsair Barbaros of Algiers. Al-Hurra controlled the western Mediterranean Sea while Barbaros controlled the eastern. Also prefect of Tétouan. Due to Reconquista on the Iberian peninsula, her family fled from Granada to Morocco in her youth. This involuntary displacement motivated her later piracy, a form of vengeance against the Christians. She grew up in the tutelage of scholars and married the governor of Tétouan at a young age. In 1515 she became the last person in Islamic history to legitimately hold the title of "al Hurra" or Queen, as she continued to act as ruler even following the death of her husband who ruled Tétouan. She later married the King of Morocco, Ahmed al-Wattasi, but refused to leave Tétouan to do so. This marriage is the only time in Moroccan history a king has married away from the capital Fez. |
*al Hurra is also the name of an American Arab language pirate radio station used as a counter to al Jazeera.
|Lady Mary Killigrew||1530–1570||English||Mary was the daughter of a former Suffolk pirate. Mary's husband Sir Henry Killigrew, a former pirate himself, was made a Vice-Admiral by Queen Elizabeth I and tasked with suppressing piracy. Whenever her husband went to sea, Mary engaged in piracy using the staff of her castle (Arwenack Castle in Cornwall) as crew and possibly with the Queen's knowledge. In 1570, she captured a German merchant ship off Falmouth and her crew sailed it to Ireland to sell. However, the owner of this ship was a friend of Queen Elizabeth, who then had Lady Mary arrested and brought to trial at the Launceston assizes. Some sources say she was sentenced to death and then pardoned by the Queen. Other sources say her family either bribed the jurors and she was acquitted, or Queen Elizabeth arranged a short jail sentence. Whatever transpired, she gave up piracy and took up fencing stolen goods until she died several years later.|
|Elizabetha Patrickson||1634||English||Indicted with her husband William on piracy, robbery, and murder charges on 10 March 1634 in an English court. She was tortured into a confession. She was hanged presumably in the same year.|
|Jacquotte Delahaye||1650s-1660s||French Haitian||Caribbean pirate. Most likely a fictional character. Also known as "Back from the Dead Red" due to her red hair and return to piracy after faking her own death and hiding dressed as a man for several years.|
|Christina Anna Skytte||1643-1677||1650s-1660s||Swedish||She actively participated in the secret piracy conducted by her brother and spouse in the Baltic sea.|
|Anne Dieu-le-Veut A.K.A. Marie-Anne and Marianne||1661-1710||1690s-1704||French||Caribbean pirate and later based in Mississippi after Tortuga was closed down. Dieu-Le-Veut was a nickname meaning "God wills it" and given to her as it seemed anything she wanted God gave her. Married to a pirate, Anne challenged pirate Laurens de Graaf to a duel after he killed her husband in 1683. He refused and she became his common-law wife, fighting by his side and sharing command.|
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (June 2013)
During the Golden Age of Piracy, many men had to leave home to find employment or set sail for economic reasons.: 283 This left women with the jobs and responsibilities traditionally held by men. The need for women to fill these roles led them to be granted rights that were historically exclusive to men. Women were allowed to trade, own ships, and work as retailers. Often they were innkeepers or ran alehouses. In some seaside towns, laws were written to allow widows to keep their husbands' responsibilities and property. This was important to local economies, as alehouses and other such establishments were centers of commerce, where pirates would congregate and trade with each other and with the people onshore.
As heads of these establishments, women had a considerable amount of freedom in business. They boarded and fed pirates, bought illegally pirated goods, acted as pawnbrokers for pirates, and even gave out loans – something many men, let alone women, viewed with great caution in that time.: 284 Sometimes, female business owners hid their clients when authorities came to arrest them for piracy.
Some women chose to marry pirates. These men were often wealthy, but their wives tended not to gain wealth as a result of their marriages, as it was difficult for pirates to send home wages and loot earned overseas. These women's houses and establishments were often used as safe havens for pirates, who were considered enemies of all nations.: 289–290
Women sometimes became pirates themselves, though they typically had to disguise themselves as men in order to do so. Male pirates rarely allowed women onto their ships. Additionally, women were often regarded as bad luck among pirates, and it was feared that the male members of the crew would argue and fight over the women. On many ships, women (and young boys) were prohibited by the ship's contract, which all crew members were required to sign.: 303
Because of the resistance to allowing women on board, many female pirates did not identify themselves as such. Anne Bonny, for example, dressed and acted as a man while on Captain Calico Jack's ship.: 285 She and Mary Read, another female pirate, are often identified as being unique in this regard. However, many women pretended to be pirates during the Golden Age of Piracy in an effort to take advantage of the many rights, privileges, and freedoms that were exclusive to men.
|Maria Lindsey||Early 1700s||English||The wife of Captain Eric Cobham and possibly fictional. Pirates operating on the Canadian east coast.|
|Maria Cobham||Early 1700s||English||Often listed separately in lists of pirates, but is likely to be Maria Lindsey (see above).|
|Ingela Gathenhielm||1692–1729||1710–1721||Swedish||Baltic pirate. Wife and partner of legendary pirate Lars Gathenhielm. Took sole control following his death in 1718.|
|Anne Bonny born Anne Cormac, aliases Ann Bonn and Ann Fulford, possibly also Sarah Bonny||1698–1721 (disappeared)||1718-1720||Irish||Caribbean pirate. Married to pirate James Bonny, had an affair with pirate John "Calico Jack" Rackham, and later joined his crew. Avoided execution after Rackham's capture by claiming pregnancy. No confirmed record of her fate afterward exists.|
|Mary Read, alias Mark Read||c. 1690–1721||1718–1720||English||Caribbean pirate. As a man, Mary went to sea and later joined the British army, fighting in the War Of The Spanish Succession. Mary married and settled down as a woman, but returned to male dress following the death of her husband, later boarding a ship bound for the West Indies. Captured by "Calico" Jack Rackham, Mary joined his crew. In 1721, she died in prison.|
|Mary Farley, alias Mary / Martha Farlee / Harley / Harvey||1725–1726||Irish||In 1725, Mary Harvey and her husband Thomas were transported to the Province of Carolina as felons. In 1726, Mary and three men were tried for piracy. Two of the men were hanged (their leader John Vidal was convicted and later pardoned), but Mary was released. Her husband Thomas was never caught.|
|Mary Crickett (or Critchett / Crichett)||1728||English||In 1728, Mary Crickett and Edmund Williams were transported to the colony of Virginia together as felons. In 1729, along with four other men, both were convicted of piracy and hanged.|
|Flora Burn||1751||English||Operated on the East Coast of North America.|
|Rachel Wall||1760–1789||1770s||American||Married George Wall, a former privateer who served in the Revolutionary War, when she was sixteen years old. Operated on the New England coast. Thought to be the first American female pirate. In 1782, George and the rest of his crew were drowned in a storm. She was accused of robbery in 1789 and confessed to being a pirate. She was convicted and sentenced to death by hanging. She was the last woman to be hanged in the state of Massachusetts.|
|Charlotte de Berry||1700s||English||Historical accounts vary on de Berry's history. Possibly fictional.|
|Ching Shih||1775–1844||1801–1810||Chinese||She was a prostitute who married a pirate and rose to prominence after his death. Regarded as one of the most powerful pirates in human history, she commanded her husband's fleet after his death. While the fleet she inherited was already large, she further increased the number of ships and crew. At its height, her fleet was composed of more than 1,500 ships and 80,000 sailors. She controlled much of the waters of the South China Sea. After years of piracy during which she defeated several attempts to capture her, the Qing government offered her peace in 1810 and she was able to retire. She married her second-in-command.|
|Margaret Croke (Margaret Jordan)||1809||Canadian||Following a dispute with investors over his schooner The Three Sisters, Edward Jordan was on his way to Halifax to sort it out. Wrongly assuming his family was being sent to debtors' prison, he killed two crewman then threw the captain overboard before commandeering the vessel with the help of the remaining crewman. The marooned captain survived and testified against Jordan claiming Margaret, who was aboard with her son and three young daughters, was also involved. Margaret admitted hitting the captain after he had hit her husband during an argument in her cabin before he decided to commandeer the vessel; the other crew member testified she was actually in fear for her life from her violent husband and had attempted to escape. Edward was hanged for piracy and murder, Margaret was discharged|
|Johanna Hård||1789–1851||1823||Swedish||Sweden's last pirate; in 1823, the recently widowed Hård, a farm owner on Vrångö Island, was arrested along with her farmhand Anders Andersson, farmer Christen Andersson, and one of Christen's farmhands Carl Börjesson and boatman Johan Andersson Flatås of Göteborg for piracy after the Danish ship Frau Mette was found beached and plundered with a murdered crew. Evidence was presented that the five had followed the Frau Mette on the Flatås' fishing vessel, the Styrsö, and requested water. After boarding her they killed the crew. Johan Andersson Flatås, Anders Andersson, and Christen Andersson were sentenced to death and beheaded. Carl Börjesson was imprisoned in Karlstens fortress, where he died in 1853. The evidence against Johanna Hård was insufficient and she was released and subsequently disappeared.|
|Sadie the Goat||1869||American||Possibly fictional. Operated around the state of New York as a member of the Charlton Street Gang. Named for her habit of headbutting her victims before taking their money.|
|Lo Hon-cho alias Hon-cho Lo||1920s||Chinese||Took command of 64 ships after her husband’s death in 1921. Youthful and reported to be pretty, she gained the reputation of being the most ruthless of all of China's pirates. Lo Hon-cho's fleet attacked villages and fishing fleets in the seas around Beihai, taking young women as prisoners and later selling them into slavery. In 1922, a Chinese warship intercepted the fleet, destroying 40 vessels. Despite escaping, Lo Hon-cho was later handed to authorities by the remaining pirates in exchange for clemency.|
|Lai Sho Sz’en alias Lai Choi San||1922–1939||Chinese||Operated in the South China Sea. Commanded 12 ships.|
|P’en Ch’ih Ch’iko||1936||Chinese||Supposedly commanded 100 pirates in 1936.|
|Ki Ming||Chinese||Possibly an alias for P’en Ch’ih Ch’iko|
|Huang P’ei-mei||1937–1950s||Chinese||Led 50,000 pirates.|
|Cheng Chui Ping
(nicknamed "Sister Ping")
|1970s–1990s||Chinese||Operated in the South China Sea, smuggling thousands of Chinese immigrants to the U.S. and Europe. Was convicted in the U.S. and sentenced to 35 years in prison. Died in 2014.|
While most fictional and dramatic depictions of pirates have been male, some notable female pirates have been depicted.