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Women in baseball Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_baseball

Women playing baseball at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1928

Women have a long history in American baseball and many women's teams have existed over the years. Baseball was played at women's colleges in New York and New England as early as the mid-nineteenth century;[1] teams were formed at Vassar College, Smith College, Wellesley College, and Mount Holyoke College.[2] An African American women's team, the Philadelphia Dolly Vardens, was formed in 1867.[3]

A number of women's barnstorming teams have existed,[4] and women have played alongside major league players in exhibition games. On April 2, 1931, 17-year-old Jackie Mitchell (originally known as "Virne Beatrice Mitchell Gilbert") of the Chattanooga Lookouts struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig in an exhibition game. Commissioner of Baseball Kenesaw Mountain Landis voided her contract as a result.[5]

In 1946, former player Edith Houghton became the first woman to work as an independent scout in Major League Baseball when she was hired by the Philadelphia Phillies of the National League.[6] In 1989, NBC's Gayle Gardner became the first woman to regularly host Major League Baseball games for a major television network. In 2015, Jessica Mendoza was the first female analyst for a Major League Baseball game in the history of ESPN, and Margaret Donahue (1892–1978) was the first non-owner female front office executive in Major League Baseball, starting as a stenographer for the Chicago Cubs in 1919 before becoming the team's corporate secretary in 1926 and team vice president and executive secretary before she retired in 1958.[7]

Effa Manley, the only woman member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame (inducted 2006), co-owned the Newark Eagles baseball franchise in the Negro leagues from 1935 to 1948.[8]

Early history[edit]

There is some evidence that women were playing base ball (as it was then called) as far back as the 1860s,[9] but it was not normal for young women to play what was considered a man's sport. In fact, until the early 1890s, when the bicycle craze hit America, women who wanted to get some outdoor exercise were usually discouraged from doing so.[10] But in the late 1890s, there were some organized efforts to have all-female baseball teams, several of which enjoyed success. One of the most successful was the Boston Bloomer Girls baseball club; they took their name from the comfortable pants that some sports-minded young women had begun to wear instead of a long skirt. Young women who went against traditional fashion norms and chose bloomers were often called "bloomer girls".[11] While in some cities, local authorities banned women's baseball teams, including the Bloomer Girls,[12] in other cities, the club was welcomed by curious fans who had never seen female ballplayers.[13]

The Bloomer Girls toured the United States in 1897; the press referred to them as the "champion women's club of the world",[14] although this may have been marketing hyperbole, given that the team often seemed inexperienced and did not play very well. One regular standout for the Bloomers was pitcher Maud Nelson, whose talents as a player were praised by reporters; but her teammates did not seem to have as much polish or skill as she did.[15] As they gained more experience, they began to play with more confidence; while still regarded as a novelty, the club often drew large crowds of appreciative fans, many of whom came to see Maud Nelson and her curve ball.[16] The Boston Bloomers were still touring and playing baseball in the early 1900s; by 1907–1908, their team also included several male players, but the majority of the team continued to be female.[17]

1920s–present[edit]

Although female teams like the Bloomers were always considered a novelty, by the early 1920s, there were several female players who were attracting attention at the amateur and semi-pro level and were considered talented enough to play for all-male teams. Perhaps the best known young woman playing baseball in the early 1920s was Rhode Island's Lizzie Murphy. A first baseman, she played for the Providence (RI) Independents, and was praised by newspaper reporters for her fielding skills. Sportswriters said she was every bit as talented as a male player, and noted that she was paid $300 a week, more than many minor league players of the 1920s received.[18] Murphy, who had begun playing baseball when she was only ten, had dreams of becoming a major league player, but she was not able to achieve that goal.[19] She was, however, able to have a long career in the semi-pro leagues, leading a touring team that played all over the eastern United States. According to newspaper accounts, she developed a loyal following, with numerous fans who came out to watch her and her team play.[20] Lizzie Murphy's baseball career lasted from 1918 to 1935, and included one charity exhibition game in which she was part of a team of all-stars who played against the Boston Red Sox.[21]

While Murphy was perhaps the best-known woman playing for an all-male team in the 1920s, there was at least one other woman athlete whose abilities included playing baseball. Philadelphia's Betty Schenkel not only played baseball with the boys during high school, but she was said to be adept in other sports, including basketball, soccer, and cycling.[22]

World War II[edit]

During World War II, over 500 baseball players, including super-stars like Ted Williams, Stan Musial and Joe DiMaggio, were drafted.[23] This left major league rosters depleted and severely diminished the level of talent in the league. The owner of the Chicago Cubs, Philip K. Wrigley formed a committee to come up with ideas to keep baseball financially afloat during the war. The result of that committee was the organization of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, which operated from 1943 to 1954. At the height of its popularity, it had teams in twelve cities.[24] One of the most successful of the teams in the league was the Rockford (IL) Peaches, which won four championships. The Peaches, and the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, were commemorated in a 1992 movie, A League of Their Own, starring Geena Davis.[25]

1980s–1990s[edit]

In 1988, Julie Croteau was recognized as the first woman to play men's NCAA baseball.[26]

Starting in 1989 and continuing to date (July 2021), Janet Marie Smith oversaw multiple MLB stadium projects for the Baltimore Orioles, the Atlanta Braves, the Boston Red Sox, and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Smith directed the design of Baltimore's Oriole Park at Camden Yards which marked a new era of MLB parks. Camden Yards was the first of the "Retro Ballparks," and was unique in that it honored many qualities of ballparks from the classic era ballparks like Fenway Park and Wrigley Field, but also incorporated modern elements and building techniques to improve the overall fan experience as well as the views.[27][28][29] Smith's work in major league baseball stadium design and renovation has influenced ballpark design since 1992.[30] "Every ballpark built since Oriole Park’s opening owes some debt of its design to that park."[27] Oriole Park became known as "the Baltimore ballpark that changed baseball."[31] Janet Marie Smith's "fingerprints are all over baseball."[32][33]

In 1994, the Colorado Silver Bullets women's professional baseball team was founded, in which the women players barnstormed around the country playing men's professional and semi-professional teams.[34] They won six of 40 games in their inaugural season, improving to a final winning season of 23–22 in their final year, 1997.[35] Croteau played with the Colorado Silver Bullets in its inaugural season. After one season, she and teammate Lee Anne Ketcham joined the Maui Stingrays of the Hawaii Winter Baseball League, becoming the first women to play in the Major League Baseball-sanctioned league.

In 1995, Ila Borders became the first woman to start as pitcher in a men's collegiate baseball game.[36]

2000s[edit]

In 2008, Eri Yoshida, at 16 years old, became Japan's first professional female baseball player to play in a men's league by signing a professional contract with a new Japanese independent league. In April 2010, she signed a contract with the Chico Outlaws, becoming the first woman to play professionally in two countries.

In 2008, Mamie "Peanut" Johnson was drafted (at age 72) by the Washington Nationals in a special Negro leagues honorary draft that preceded 2008 Major League Baseball draft, marking the first time a woman was drafted in the MLB's yearly new player draft.

In 2009, Justine Siegal became the first female coach of a men's professional baseball team.[37] In 2011, she was the first woman to throw batting practice to an MLB team, the Cleveland Indians at spring training.[38] She also threw BP to the Oakland Athletics, Tampa Bay Rays, St. Louis Cardinals, Houston Astros, and New York Mets.[39][40][41][42] In 2015, Siegal became the Oakland Athletics guest instructor for their Instructional League Club, thus making her the first female coach in major league baseball history.[43]

For one day in May 2016, Jennie Finch was a guest manager for the Bridgeport Bluefish of the Atlantic League, becoming the first woman to manage a professional baseball team.[44] The team played and won one game that day.[44]

In 2016, the Sonoma Stompers of the Pacific Association, an independent baseball league, signed Kelsie Whitmore and Stacy Piagno; they became the first female teammates in professional baseball since the 1950s in the Negro Leagues.[45][46] Whitmore pitched to Anna Kimbrell during a game in 2016, forming the first all-female battery since the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.[47][48]

In January 2021, Boston Red Sox hired Bianca Smith as a minor league coach. With the hire, Smith was the first black woman to become a coach in professional baseball.[49]

On January 11, 2022, the Yankees announced that Rachel Balkovec will manage the Low-A Tampa Tarpons in 2022, making her the first woman to manage in affiliated baseball.[50]

In 2022, Kelsie Whitmore signed with the Staten Island FerryHawks of the Atlantic League, and started a game for them in left field; this made her the first woman to start an Atlantic League of Professional Baseball game.[51][52] Later that year she became the first woman to pitch in an Atlantic League game when she made her first pitching appearance for Staten Island; entering the game with the bases loaded and two outs, she retired Ryan Jackson, a former major leaguer, on a fly out to end the inning.[53]

Broadcasting[edit]

In 1989, NBC's Gayle Gardner became the first woman to regularly host Major League Baseball games for a major television network. In 1990, CBS Sports' Lesley Visser became the first woman to cover the World Series, serving as their lead field reporter. In addition to working the World Series from 1990–1993 for CBS, Visser covered the 1995 World Series for ABC Sports via The Baseball Network.

On August 3, 1993, Gayle Gardner became the first woman to do television play-by-play for a Major League Baseball game. It was the Colorado Rockies vs. Cincinnati Reds on KWGN-TV in Denver. Also in 1993, CBS' Andrea Joyce became the first woman to co-host the network television coverage of the World Series. Joyce co-hosted that particular World Series with Pat O'Brien.

In 1995, NBC's Hannah Storm not only became the first woman to serve as solo host a World Series game, but also the first woman to preside over the World Series Trophy presentation. In 2009, New York Yankees broadcaster Suzyn Waldman[54] became the first woman to work a World Series game from the broadcast booth.

On July 2, 2015, Jenny Cavnar became the first woman to provide analysis for a series of National League games in the radio booth, filling in on KOA for the Colorado Rockies vs Arizona Diamondbacks.[55] Cavnar would also become the fill-in play-by-play voice for the Colorado Rockies on April 23, 2018, when she stepped in the booth to call the San Diego Padres at Colorado Rockies.[56] On August 24, 2015, Jessica Mendoza was the first female analyst for a Major League Baseball game in the history of ESPN, during a game between the St. Louis Cardinals and the Arizona Diamondbacks.[57] John Kruk, Dan Shulman and Jessica Mendoza called the 2015 American League Wild Card Game on October 6, and Mendoza thus became the first female analyst in MLB postseason history.[58] In October 2020 Mendoza became the first female World Series analyst on any national broadcast platform; she was on ESPN's radio platform.[59]

On July 20, 2021, MLB produced its first-ever all-female broadcast of a game between the Baltimore Orioles and Tampa Bay Rays. The game was called by Melanie Newman, MLB.com writer Sarah Langs, and Alanna Rizzo. Heidi Watney and Lauren Gardner hosted the pregame and postgame shows. The game was broadcast live on YouTube. ESPN would do the same on September 29, 2021, with Newman and Mendoza calling a game between the San Diego Padres and Los Angeles Dodgers.

Umpires[edit]

There is evidence that at least one woman, Amanda Clement, was umpiring semi-professional games as early as 1905.[60] "Mandy", as she was called, grew up near a ballpark in her hometown of Hudson, South Dakota, where she was introduced to baseball by her brother Henry.[61] Clement began umpiring while a student at Yankton College, and gained fame nationwide for her knowledge of baseball and her accuracy in umpiring the games. She was paid between $10 and $15 per game, which helped pay her tuition.[62] She umpired games in North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and South Dakota until at least 1909, and later became a physical education instructor for high school and college women's teams.[63] She still would umpire an occasional semi-pro game in South Dakota even during the 1910s.[64] There were several other woman umpires in the early 1920s: one was Deana Ernest of Toledo, Ohio, who umpired semi-pro games in the area, and also managed a city league team there.[65][66] Another was Nina Belle Hurst, a resident of Sawtelle, California, who umpired in the Southern California Baseball Managers Association.[67] During World War II, there were also some women who umpired, including some the press jokingly referred to as "WUMPS" (women umpires). Among them was Lorraine Heinisch, of Kenosha WI, who umpired semi-pro games in 1943, including a championship game in Wichita, Kansas.[68]

The first woman to umpire a professional game was Bernice Gera. A former Little League coach and a passionate fan of baseball, she entered umpiring school in 1967 (the first woman ever to attend the Fort Lauderdale Baseball School).[69] After a lengthy court battle with major league baseball, she finally won the right to umpire. Her first pro game was in the minor leagues in June 1972—a game between the Auburn Phillies and Geneva Rangers in the New York-Penn League, but after several disputed calls, she decided to resign and never umpired another professional game.[70]

In 1988 Pam Postema became the first female umpire to officiate a Major League Baseball spring training game, and the last until Ria Cortesio in 2007.

Executives[edit]

The first woman to own a baseball team was Helene Hathaway Britton, who owned the St. Louis Cardinals National League baseball team from 1911 through 1916.[71] Margaret Donahue was the first female front office executive in Major League Baseball who was not an owner. She worked for the Chicago Cubs from 1919 to 1958 and introduced marketing concepts such as the season ticket and reduced prices for children under 12, both still used in the 2000s.[72] Since then, many women have held executive positions in business and financial areas of Major League Baseball. Yet, there have not been many women who have become player personnel, though, there are women who have been hired as general managers (GMs) for minor league affiliates. However, these positions are not responsible for player personnel moves, since roster maneuvers are handled by front-office personnel of the minor league affiliate's major league parent team.

One woman who has a position in player personnel at the Major League level is Kim Ng. She first worked for the Chicago White Sox, where she successfully presented an arbitration case. After working for the American League as director of waivers and records, she was hired as Assistant GM by the New York Yankees. When she left the Yankees in 2001 for the same position with the Los Angeles Dodgers, the Yankees hired another woman to replace her, Jean Afterman. Afterman still holds the same position as of July 2015. Kim Ng later moved on to work for Major League Baseball as Senior Vice President of Baseball Operations.[73][74][75] In 2020, she was hired by the Miami Marlins as the first woman and first Asian American to serve as general manager of an MLB team.[76]

Coaching[edit]

Several women have made milestone firsts as coaches, including:

  • Julie Croteau
    • 1993: Croteau becomes the first woman to coach men's NCAA baseball
    • 2004: Croteau was selected to be the third base coach for the United States Women's National Team, which captured the gold medal at the 2004 Women's World Cup of Baseball in Edmonton.
    • 2006: Croteau was promoted to become the manager of the Women's National Team which won the Women's World Cup in Taiwan. She became the first woman to manage a women's baseball team to the gold medal in any international baseball competition.
  • Rachel Balkovec
    • 2019: Balkovec became the first woman hired to be a full-time hitting coach for a Major League Baseball team.[77]
    • 2022, the Yankees announced that Balkovec will manage the Low-A Tampa Tarpons in 2022, making her the first woman to manage in affiliated baseball.[50]
  • Alyssa Nakken
    • 2020: Nakken became the first full-time female coach in Major League Baseball history and the first to coach on the field during a major league pre-season game.[78][79]
    • 2022: Nakken became first woman to coach on the field in a regular season major league game on April 12, 2022, when the Giants substituted Nakken into the game as the first base coach after Antoan Richardson was ejected during the top of the third inning of a game against the San Diego Padres.[80]
  • Bianca Smith
    • 2021: Smith was hired by the Boston Red Sox as a minor league coach, making her the first African American woman to serve as a coach in a professional baseball organization.[81][82]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ring (2009), 33.
  2. ^ Ring (2009), 34.
  3. ^ Gems, Borish, and Pfister (2008), 145.
  4. ^ Cahn (1995), 38.
  5. ^ Ring (2009), 18.
  6. ^ Clark, Vernon (February 12, 2013). "Edith G. Houghton, 100, pro baseball's first female scout". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  7. ^ "Margaret Donahue – Society for American Baseball Research".
  8. ^ "Effa Manley – Society for American Baseball Research".
  9. ^ "A Female Baseball Club at Peterboro". Chicago Tribune, August 29, 1868, p. 4.
  10. ^ "Thirty Thousand Women Cyclists". New York Herald, November 20, 1892, p. 30.
  11. ^ "A Pair of Bloomer Girls in Wisconsin". New York Tribune, August 23, 1869, p. 2.
  12. ^ "Rooters Ready for Baseball to Begin". San Francisco Chronicle, October 14, 1895, p. 10.
  13. ^ "Bloomers Were Beaten". Portland Oregonian, October 4, 1897, p. 6.
  14. ^ "Bloomer Baseball Club". Seattle Daily Times, September 18, 1897, p. 8.
  15. ^ "They Hail from Boston and Can't Play Ball". San Francisco Chronicle, October 25, 1897, p. 5.
  16. ^ "Women Ball Twirlers". Fresno (CA) Weekly Republican, November 5, 1897, p. 8.
  17. ^ "Bloomer Girls Will Play at Broadway Park". Denver Daily News, July 23, 1908, p. 9.
  18. ^ "Draws Large Salary". Cincinnati Enquirer, April 29, 1923, p. 22.
  19. ^ "Sport Snap Shots". Olean (NY) Evening Herald, October 24, 1923, p. 6.
  20. ^ "Lizzie Murphy Will Play Here". North Adams (MA) Transcript, June 24, 1926, p. 15.
  21. ^ "Lizzie Murphy, 70, Former Baseball Star". Newport (RI) Daily News, July 29, 1964, p. 6.
  22. ^ "Women of Today No Longer Mollycoddles in the World Of Sports". Colorado Springs Gazette, August 27, 1922, p. 44.
  23. ^ Weintraub, Robert (May 25, 2013). "Remembering the Major Leaguers Who Died in World War II". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  24. ^ "Skirting a Forgotten Era". Boston Herald, July 20, 1988, p. 94.
  25. ^ "Rockford's Baseball Past May Appear in 'Civil War' Producer's Next TV Series". Rockford (IL) Register Star, December 13, 1991, p. 29.
  26. ^ "First Female NCAA Men's Baseball Player Croteau '93 Receives Trailblazer Award". SMCM Newsroom. April 12, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  27. ^ a b "#Shortstops: Janet Marie Smith's ballpark designs have changed the landscape of the game". Baseball Hall of Fame.
  28. ^ April 2012, Jess Mayhugh | (April 1, 2012). "Field of Dreams". Baltimore Magazine.
  29. ^ LAI – Land Economic Society. Archived July 14, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Janet Marie Smith, Senior Vice President, Planning & Development, Los Angeles Dodgers.
  30. ^ "25th Anniversary Flashback Moments: Janet Marie Smith". May 5, 2017.
  31. ^ "Architect Janet Marie Smith immersing herself in Worcester to design Polar Park | Matt Vautour". MassLive. August 29, 2019.
  32. ^ "USA TODAY". www.usatoday.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021.
  33. ^ MSBC 2014: The Intersection of Sport and Urban Development
  34. ^ GAY, GREGORY. "How it went down when the Colorado Silver Bullets came to town 25 years ago". NNY360. Retrieved September 10, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ "This day in sports: The Colorado Bullets, the first all-female pro baseball team, played their first game in 1994". WDVM25 & DCW50 | Washington, DC. May 8, 2020. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
  36. ^ "Timeline of Women in Sports". faculty.elmira.edu. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
  37. ^ Justine Siegal (PDF), Baseball Glory
  38. ^ "Breaking down barriers, one pitch at a time", Sports, Yahoo!, February 21, 2011
  39. ^ "Baseball Video Highlights & Clips", Siegal moves onto Athletics batting practice (Video), MLB
  40. ^ Advocate for Women in Baseball Finally Gets to Be One, The New York Times, Sports, Baseball, Pitcher, February 22, 2011, retrieved October 11, 2013
  41. ^ "2011 spring training: Cleveland Indians put first woman on MLB mound — for batting practice", ESPN, Go, February 21, 2011
  42. ^ Dream Comes True For Female Pitcher, NPR, February 23, 2011
  43. ^ Lisk, Jason. "Oakland A's Hire First Female Coach in MLB History". The Big Lead. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  44. ^ a b Eisenberg, Matt (July 16, 2013). "Guest manager Jennie Finch leads Bridgeport Bluefish to win". Espn.go.com. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  45. ^ "2 Women Play For Sonoma Stompers Baseball Team : The Two-Way". NPR. October 31, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  46. ^ Baer, Bill (June 29, 2016). "Kelsie Whitmore signs with the Sonoma Stompers, an independent league team - MLB | NBC Sports". Mlb.nbcsports.com. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  47. ^ "After three weeks, the female players on the Sonoma Stompers are still making history". MLB.com.
  48. ^ "Kelsie Whitmore becomes first woman to start Atlantic League game". Usatoday.com. April 24, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  49. ^ "Boston Red Sox hire Bianca Smith, first Black woman to coach professional baseball". ESPN. January 5, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  50. ^ a b "New York Yankees Name Rachel Balkovec Manager of the Tampa Tarpons". MiLB.com. January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  51. ^ Adams, Cindy. "Welcome Whitmore — This woman is making baseball history in NYC". Nypost.com. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  52. ^ Axisa, Mike. "Kelsie Whitmore becomes first woman to start game in Atlantic League of Professional Baseball". CBSSports.com. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  53. ^ Randhawa, Manny (May 4, 2022). "Kelsie Whitmore makes history pitching for FerryHawks". MLB.com. Retrieved May 4, 2022.
  54. ^ "Suzyn Waldman makes history".
  55. ^ "Cavnar makes inroads as female broadcaster". MLB.com. July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  56. ^ "Jenny Cavnar breaks barriers, calls televised play-by-play". ESPN. April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  57. ^ "Jessica Mendoza becomes first woman to fill analyst role for MLB game on ESPN". Yahoo Sports. August 25, 2015. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  58. ^ Miller, Doug (October 6, 2015). "Mendoza makes TV history in AL Wild Card". MLB.com. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
  59. ^ Das, Ria (October 22, 2020). "Jessica Mendoza Becomes First Woman Analyst In World Series History".
  60. ^ "Girl Will Umpire in Western League". Salt Lake City Tribune, October 1, 1905, p. 4.
  61. ^ Katie Hunhoff. "Exploring South Dakota". Platte (SD) Enterprise, July 9, 2009, p. 9.
  62. ^ "Miss Clement is Fond of Baseball". Minneapolis Journal, September 8, 1906, p. 9.
  63. ^ Bernie Barnes. "Comments on Sports". Mitchell (SD) Daily Republic, July 14, 1972, p. 8.
  64. ^ "Woman Umpire Recovering". Lincoln (NE) Daily News, January 18, 1915, p. 2.
  65. ^ "Latest in World Sport-- A Woman Umpire". Bismarck (ND) Tribune, May 6, 1922, p. 7
  66. ^ Halper, Donna L. (2015). Invisible stars : a social history of women in American broadcasting (Second ed.). London. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-317-52018-4. OCLC 903488802.
  67. ^ "First Female Plate Duster". Yuma (AZ) Morning Sun, May 27, 1923, p. 7.
  68. ^ "Enter the WUMPS". Newsweek, August 16, 1943, p. 99.
  69. ^ Will Grimsley. "Lady Umpire? Bernice Will Try It". Greenfield (MA) Recorder, May 10, 1967, p. 25.
  70. ^ "Woman Ump Bernice Gera Resigns After Just 1 Game". Meriden (CT) Morning Record, June 26, 1972, p. 12.
  71. ^ Joan M. Thomas. Baseball's First Lady. St Louis: Reedy Press, 2010, p. 3.
  72. ^ "Margaret Donahue | Society for American Baseball Research". sabr.org. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
  73. ^ Owens, John. "Female Cubs executive left her mark on the big leagues".
  74. ^ Fluke, Cecily J. "Female Execs Step Up To The Plate". Forbes.
  75. ^ Borzi, Pat (May 21, 2012). "Women GMs mean business in Minors".
  76. ^ "Marlins hire Kim Ng as MLB's first female GM". ESPN.com. November 13, 2020. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  77. ^ "How a West Seattle woman is making history with the New York Yankees". The Seattle Times. January 7, 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
  78. ^ Martin, Jill (July 21, 2020). "Alyssa Nakken made MLB history as the first woman to coach on the field during a major league game". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  79. ^ Snyder, Matt (January 17, 2020). "San Francisco Giants hire Alyssa Nakken as first woman on MLB coaching staff". CBSSports.com. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  80. ^ "Giants' Nakken first female coach in MLB game". The Athletic.
  81. ^ McWilliams, Julian (December 31, 2020). "Red Sox hiring Bianca Smith as minor league coach, making her first Black woman to coach in pro baseball history". Boston Globe. Boston Globe. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  82. ^ Browne, Ian (January 4, 2021). "Red Sox hire Smith, first Black female coach". mlb.com. Major League Baseball. Retrieved January 4, 2021.
  83. ^ Ring (2009), 169.
  84. ^ "Playing with the Boys: Gender, Race, and Baseball in Post-War America – Society for American Baseball Research".

References[edit]

  • Cahn, Susan K (1995). Coming on strong: gender and sexuality in twentieth-century women's sport. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-14434-1.
  • Gems, Gerald; Linda Borish; Gertrud Pfister (2008). Sports in American History: From Colonization to Globalization. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5621-2.
  • Ring, Jennifer (2009). Stolen Bases. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03282-0.
  • Shattuck, Debra (c. 2015). Bloomer Girls: Women Baseball Pioneers. University of Illinois Press.

External links[edit]