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Ultranationalism Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultranationalism

Ultranationalism or extreme nationalism is an extreme form of nationalism in which a country asserts or maintains detrimental hegemony, supremacy, or other forms of control over other nations (usually through violent coercion) to pursue its specific interests.[1][2][3] Ultranationalist entities have been associated with the engagement of political violence even during peacetime.[4]

In ideological terms, scholars such as British political theorist Roger Griffin have found that ultranationalism arises from seeing modern nation-states as living organisms directly akin to physical people such that they can decay, grow, die, and additionally experience rebirth. Political campaigners have divided societies in stark mythological ways between those perceived as degenerately inferior and those perceived as a part of a great cultural destiny. Ultranationalism is an aspect of fascism, with historic governments such as the regime of Nazi Germany building on ultranationalist foundations using specific plans of supposed widespread national renewal.[3]

Background concepts and broader context[edit]

According to Janusz Bugajski, "in its most extreme or developed forms, ultra-nationalism resembles fascism, marked by a xenophobic disdain of other nations, support for authoritarian political arrangements verging on totalitarianism, and a mythical emphasis on the 'organic unity' between a charismatic leader, an organizationally amorphous movement-type party, and the nation".[5]

British political theorist Roger Griffin has stated that ultranationalism is essentially founded on xenophobia in a way that finds supposed legitimacy "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms" of different scientific studies such as anthropology and genetics, eugenics specifically playing a role, in order "to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness" in Griffin's opinion. Ultranationalists view the modern nation-state as, according to Griffin, a living organism directly akin to a physical person such that it can decay, grow, die, and additionally experience rebirth. He has highlighted Nazi Germany as a regime founded on ultranationalism.[3]

Historical movements and analysis[edit]

U.S. historian Walter Skya has written in Japan’s Holy War: The Ideology of Radical Shinto Ultranationalism that ultranationalism in Japan drew upon traditional Shinto spiritual beliefs and militaristic attitudes regarding the nation's racial identity. By the early twentieth century, fanaticism arising from this combination of ethnic nationalism and religious nationalism caused opposition to democratic governance and support for Japanese territorial expansion. Skya particularly noted in his work the connection between ultranationalism and political violence by citing how, between 1921 and 1936, three serving and two former Prime Ministers of Japan were assassinated.[4]

Israeli political journalist Gideon Levy wrote in late 2015 that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has led to a decay in the civil society within Israel, with an ultranationalist movement that "bases its power on incitement to hatred" using "folkloric religion" gaining ground over decades such that:

"They were the only ones willing to fight for a collective goal. They did not rule out any means. They extorted and exploited the weaknesses of government, the guilt feelings and confusion of the secular camp, and they won. They did so systematically and smartly: First they established the foundation of their existence, the settlement enterprise. After they achieved their goal– the killing off of any diplomatic agreement and destruction of the two-state solution– they were free to turn to their next target: taking control of the public debate in Israel on the road to changing its power structure, character and substance."[6]

Russian irredentism in which a new militant imperial state is proposed that stretches across both Asia and Europe without regard for current international borders has been described as ultranationalism by the Los Angeles Times, with the aggressive actions of Russian President Vladimir Putin being credited as an evolution of political arguments by figures such as Nikolai Berdyaev, Alexander Dugin (the author of 1997's The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia), Lev Gumilev, and Ivan Ilyin. The newspaper highlighted the justifications given in support of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, quoting Putin's declaration that he must militarily combat an "empire of lies" created by the U.S. to suffocate Russia.[7]

Ultranationalist political parties[edit]

Currently represented in national legislatures[edit]

The following political parties have been characterised as ultranationalist.

Represented parties with former ultranationalist tendencies or factions[edit]

The following political parties historically had ultranationalist tendencies or factions.

Formerly represented in national legislatures[edit]

Ultranationalist political organizations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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