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Timeline of religion Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_religion

Religion has been a factor of the human experience throughout history, from pre-historic to modern times. The bulk of the human religious experience pre-dates written history. Written history (the age of formal writing) is only roughly 5,000 years old.[1] A lack of written records results in most of the knowledge of pre-historic religion being derived from archaeological records and other indirect sources, and from suppositions. Much pre-historic religion is subject to continued debate.

Religious practices in prehistory[edit]

Middle Paleolithic (200,000–50,000 BC)[edit]

Despite claims by some researchers of bear worship, belief in an afterlife, and other rituals, current archaeological evidence does not support the presence of religious practices by modern humans or Neanderthals during this period.[2]

  • 100,000 BC: Earliest known human burial in the Middle East.
  • 78,000–74,000 BC: Earliest known Homo Sapiens burial of a child in Panga ya Saidi, East Africa.
  • 70,000–35,000 BC: Neanderthal burials take place in areas of Europe and the Middle East.[3]

50th to 11th millennium BC[edit]

  • 40,000 BC: The remains of one of the earliest known anatomically modern humans to be discovered cremated, was buried near Lake Mungo.[4][5][6][7][8]
  • 38,000 BC: The Aurignacian[9] Löwenmensch figurine, the oldest known zoomorphic (animal-shaped) sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general, was made. The sculpture has also been interpreted as anthropomorphic, giving human characteristics to an animal, although it may have represented a deity.[10]
  • 35,000–26,001 BC: Neanderthal burials are absent from the archaeological record. This roughly coincides with the appearance of Homo sapiens in Europe and decline of the Neanderthals;[3] individual skulls and/or long bones began appearing, heavily stained with red ochre and separately buried. This practice may be the origin of sacred relics.[3] The oldest discovered "Venus figurines" appeared in graves. Some were deliberately broken or repeatedly stabbed, possibly representing the murders of the men with whom they were buried,[3] or owing to some other unknown social dynamic.[citation needed]
  • 25,000–21,000 BC: Clear examples of burials are present in Iberia, Wales, and eastern Europe. These, too, incorporate the heavy use of red ochre. Additionally, various objects were included in the graves (e.g. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, "baton" antlers, flint blades etc.).[3]
  • 13,000–8,000 BC: Noticeable burial activity resumed. Prior mortuary activity had either taken a less obvious form or contemporaries retained some of their burial knowledge in the absence of such activity. Dozens of men, women, and children were being buried in the same caves which were used for burials 10,000 years beforehand. All these graves are delineated by the cave walls and large limestone blocks. The burials share a number of characteristics (such as use of ochre, and shell and mammoth ivory jewellery) that go back thousands of years. Some burials were double, comprising an adult male with a juvenile male buried by his side. They were now beginning to take on the form of modern cemeteries. Old burials were commonly re-dug and moved to make way for new ones, with the older bones often being gathered and cached together. Large stones may have acted as grave markers. Pairs of ochred antlers were sometimes mounted on poles within the cave; this is compared to the modern practice of leaving flowers at a grave.[3]

10th to 6th millennium BC[edit]

  • 9130–7370 BC: This was the apparent period of use of Göbekli Tepe, one of the oldest human-made sites of worship yet discovered; evidence of similar usage has also been found in another nearby site, Nevalı Çori.[11]
  • 7500–5700 BC: The settlements of Çatalhöyük developed as a likely spiritual center of Anatolia. Possibly practicing worship in communal shrines, its inhabitants left behind numerous clay figurines and impressions of phallic, feminine, and hunting scenes.[citation needed]
  • 7250-6500 BC: The ʿAin Ghazal statues were made in Jordan during the Neolithic.[12] These statues were argued to have been gods, legendary leaders, or other figures of power. They were suggested to have been a representation of a fusion of previously separate communities by Gary O. Rollefson.[13]

Ancient era[edit]

Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations.

Common era[edit]

1st to 5th centuries[edit]

Middle Ages (5th–15th centuries)[edit]

5th to 10th centuries[edit]

11th to 15th centuries[edit]

Early modern and Modern eras[edit]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

  • 2002: Joy of Satan Ministries was founded by Andrea Dietrich following her conception of the ideology of "spiritual Satanism".[64]
  • 2006: Sectarian rivalries exploded in Iraq between Sunni Muslims and Shias, with each side targeting the other in terrorist acts, and bombings of mosques and shrines.[65]
  • 2008: Nepal, the world's only Hindu Kingdom, was declared a secular state by its Constituent Assembly after declaring the state a Republic on 28 May 2008.[66]
  • 2009: The Church of Scientology in France was fined €600,000 and several of its leaders were fined and imprisoned for defrauding new recruits of their savings.[67][68][69] The state failed to disband the church owing to legal changes occurring over the same time period.[69][70]
  • 2011: Civil war broke out in Syria over domestic political issues. The country soon split along sectarian lines between Sunni Muslims, Alawite and Shiites.[71] War crimes and acts of genocide were committed by both parties as religious leaders on each side condemned the other as heretics.[72] The Syrian civil war soon became a battleground for regional sectarian unrest, as fighters joined the fight from as far away as North America and Europe, as well as Iran and the Arab states.[73]
  • 2013: The Satanic Temple was founded by Lucien Greaves and Malcolm Jarry (pseudonyms).
  • 2014: A supposed Islamic Caliphate was established by the self-proclaimed Islamic State in regions of war torn Syria and Iraq, drawing global support from radical Sunni Muslims.[74][75] This was a modern-day attempt to re-establish Islamic self-rule in accordance with strict adherence to Shariah-Islamic religious law.[76] In the wake of the Syrian civil war, Islamic extremists targeted the indigenous Arab Christian communities. In acts of genocide, numerous ancient Christian and Yazidi communities were evicted and threatened with death by various Muslim Sunni fighter groups.[77] After ISIS terrorist forces infiltrated and took over large parts of northern Iraq from Syria, many ancient Christian and Yazidi enclaves were destroyed.[77][78]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ Wunn, Ina (2000). "Beginning of Religion" (PDF). Numen. 47 (4): 417–452. doi:10.1163/156852700511612. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Pettitt, Paul (August 2002). "When Burial Begins". British Archaeology. No. 66. Archived from the original on 2 June 2007.
  4. ^ Bowler JM, Jones R, Allen H, Thorne AG (1970). "Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, Western New South Wales". World Archaeol. 2 (1): 39–60. doi:10.1080/00438243.1970.9979463. PMID 16468208.
  5. ^ Barbetti M, Allen H (1972). "Prehistoric man at Lake Mungo, Australia, by 32,000 years BP". Nature. 240 (5375): 46–8. Bibcode:1972Natur.240...46B. doi:10.1038/240046a0. PMID 4570638. S2CID 4298103.
  6. ^ Bowler, J.M. 1971. Pleistocene salinities and climatic change: Evidence from lakes and lunettes in southeastern Australia. In: Mulvaney, D.J. and Golson, J. (eds), Aboriginal Man and Environment in Australia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, pp. 47–65.
  7. ^ Bowler JM, Johnston H, Olley JM, Prescott JR, Roberts RG, Shawcross W, Spooner NA (2003). "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia". Nature. 421 (6925): 837–40. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..837B. doi:10.1038/nature01383. PMID 12594511. S2CID 4365526.
  8. ^ Olleya JM, Roberts RG, Yoshida H, Bowler JM (2006). "Single-grain optical dating of grave-infill associated with human burials at Lake Mungo, Australia". Quaternary Science Reviews. 25 (19–20): 2469–2474. Bibcode:2006QSRv...25.2469O. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.07.022.
  9. ^ "Images for Chapter 20 Hominids". ucdavis.edu. Archived from the original on 19 May 2008.
  10. ^ Bailey, Martin (31 January 2013). "Ice Age Lion Man is the world's earliest figurative sculpture". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  11. ^ "The World's First Temple", Archaeology magazine, Nov/Dec 2008 p 23.
  12. ^ "Material Worlds: Art and Agency in the Near East and Africa".
  13. ^ Rollefson, Gary O (January 2002). "Ritual and Social Structure at Neolithic 'Ain Ghazal". In Kujit, Ian (ed.). Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation. New York, New York: Springer. p. 185. ISBN 9780306471667.
  14. ^ "PlanetQuest: The History of Astronomy – Newgrange".
  15. ^ a b c Smith, Laura (2007). Illustrated Timeline of Religion. ISBN 978-1-4027-3606-3.
  16. ^ Fisher 1997, p. 115.
  17. ^ "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  18. ^ Old Testament Canon, Texts, and Versions. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  19. ^ Nigosian, S. A.; Nigosian, Solomon Alexander (1993). The Zoroastrian Faith: Tradition and Modern Research. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7735-1144-6.
  20. ^ Boyce, Mary (2001). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Psychology Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-23902-8.
  21. ^ The Encyclopedia of World Religions, Revised Edition, 2007, by DWJ BOOKS LLC
  22. ^ "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 November 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
  23. ^ Rawlinson, Hugh George. (1950) A Concise History of the Indian People, Oxford University Press. p. 46.
  24. ^ Muller, F. Max. (2001) The Dhammapada And Sutta-nipata, Routledge (UK). p. xlvii. ISBN 0-7007-1548-7.
  25. ^ India: A History. Revised and Updated, by John Keay: "The date [of Buddha's meeting with Bimbisara] (given the Buddhist 'short chronology') must have been around 400 BCE."
  26. ^ Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2010). Turning the Tables on Jesus: The Mandaean View. In Horsley, Richard (March 2010). Christian Origins. ISBN 9781451416640.(pp94-111). Minneapolis: Fortress Press
  27. ^ Drower, Ethel Stefana (1953). The Haran Gawaita and the Baptism of Hibil-Ziwa. Biblioteca Apostolica Vatican.
  28. ^ "Jan Hus – Bohemian religious leader".
  29. ^ "Jan Hus". 11 June 2014.
  30. ^ Jonathan Miller in Atheism: A Rough History of Disbelief
  31. ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 p. 1, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
  32. ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 p. 2, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
  33. ^ Mead, Frank S; Hill, Samuel S; Atwood, Craig D (1975). "Adventist and Sabbatarian (Hebraic) Churches". Handbook of Denominations in the United States (12th ed.). Nashville: Abingdon Press. pp. 256–76. ISBN 9780687165698.
  34. ^ Cone, Stephen (1896). Biographical and historical sketches; a narrative of Hamilton and its residents from 1792 to 1896. Hamilton, Ohio: Republican Publishing Company. p. 184.
  35. ^ Clifton, Chas (1998). "The Significance of Aradia". in Mario Pazzaglini. Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, A New Translation. Blaine, Washington: Phoenix Publishing, Inc.. p. 73. ISBN 0-919345-34-4.
  36. ^ "100th Anniversary of Secularism in France". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 December 2005.
  37. ^ Pearce, Q. L. (11 December 2009). Stonehenge. Greenhaven Publishing LLC. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7377-5500-8. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  38. ^ Leo P. Chall, Sociological Abstracts, vol 26 issues 1–3, "Sociology of Religion", 1978, p. 193 col 2: "Rutherford, through the Watch Tower Society, succeeded in changing all aspects of the sect from 1919 to 1932 and created —a charismatic offshoot of the Bible student community."
  39. ^ "What is Scientology and who was L. Ron Hubbard?". The Telegraph. 6 October 2016. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  40. ^ Gardner, Gerald B (1999) [1954]. Witchcraft Today. Lake Toxaway, NC: Mercury Publishing. OCLC 44936549
  41. ^ "About Oberon Zell". 24 November 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  42. ^ Faculty of Catholic University of America, ed (1967). "Vatican Council II". New Catholic Encyclopedia. XIV (1 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 563. OCLC 34184550.
  43. ^ Alberigo, Giuseppe; Sherry, Matthew (2006). A Brief History of Vatican II. Maryknoll: Orbis Books. pp. 69. ISBN 1-57075-638-4.
  44. ^ Hahnenberg, Edward (2007). A Concise Guide to the Documents of Vatican II. City: Saint Anthony Messenger Press. pp. 44. ISBN 0-86716-552-9.
  45. ^ Alberigo, Giuseppe; Sherry, Matthew (2006). A Brief History of Vatican II. Maryknoll: Orbis Books. pp. 1. ISBN 1-57075-638-4.
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  47. ^ a b McKay, George (1996) Senseless Acts of Beauty: Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties, ch.1 'The free festivals and fairs of Albion', ch. 2 two 'O life unlike to ours! Go for it! New Age travellers'. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-028-0
  48. ^ Icelandic, "Hugmyndin að Ásatrúarfélaginu byggðist á trú á dulin öfl í landinu, í tengslum við mannfólkið sem skynjaði ekki þessa hluti til fulls nema einstöku menn. Það tengdist síðan þjóðlegum metnaði og löngun til að Íslendingar ættu sína trú, og ræktu hana ekki síður en innflutt trúarbrögð." Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson (1992:140).
  49. ^ "Fyrirspurnartími". Morgunblaðið, 27 November 1973.
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  51. ^ Icelandic, "fór fram með tilþrifum og atorku", "Reiddust goðin?" Vísir, 7 August 1973.
  52. ^ ÞS. "Blótuðu Þór í úrhellisrigningu." Vísir, 7 August 1973.
  53. ^ Pétur Pétursson (1985:passim).
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  59. ^ Ed. Andy Worthington, 2005, The Battle of the Beanfield, Enabler Publications, ISBN 0-9523316-6-7
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  61. ^ E. Szafarz, "The Legal Framework for Political Cooperation in Europe" in The Changing Political Structure of Europe: Aspects of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-1379-8. p.221.
  62. ^ Hodge, Bodie; Patterson, Roger (2015). World Religions and Cults Volume 1: Counterfeits of Christianity. ISBN 9781614584605. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
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Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]