1. This 1990 "Battered woman syndrome: a critical review." source states "BWS is recognized as important in providing legal defense to victims and as basis for diagnosis and treatment."
2. This 1995 "Battered woman syndrome: a conceptual analysis of its status vis-à-vis DSM IV mental disorders." source states, "Literature on battered woman syndrome is examined with a view to validating the use of the word 'syndrome'. It is concluded that there is now sufficient information to justify its serious consideration as a form of post-traumatic stress disorder, as that diagnosis is defined in DSM IV: and that this has significance for the legal defence of battered women who react aggressively towards their abusers."
3. This 1998 "Battered woman syndrome." source notes that both medical and legal aspects of the concept are discussed.
4. This 1999 "Encyclopedia of Women in American Politics" source, from Greenwood Publishing Group, page 58, states, "In recent years, the Battered Women's Syndrome (BWS) has been used in defense of women who have killed their abusive male partners. Battered Women's Syndrome is part of a recognized pattern of behavioral responses to intensely traumatic experiences known as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)."
5. This 2002 "Self-defense and Battered Women who Kill: A New Framework" source, from Greenwood Publishing Group, page 156, notes the "battered person syndrome self-defense claim"...while also referring to "battered woman syndrome" as a self-defense claim on pages before and after that page.
6. This 2006 "Battered woman syndrome: empirical findings." source states that "The construct of Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) has been conceptualized as a subcategory of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)."
7. This 2006 "Criminal Law" source, from Roxbury Publishing Company, page 137, "Speaks of "an Illinois murder case [in which] the defendant-wife wanted to use the battered person syndrome in defense of an act she committed after she killed her husband." Speaks of the term "battered person syndrome" in relation to being a battered woman. The term is not spoken of in some gender neutral way."
8. This 2008 "Forensic Psychology" source, from Cengage Learning, pages 148-165, discusses the topic as both a medical condition (one that is questioned/criticized) and a legal defense. It discusses the topic as "a psychological self-defense defense." And on page 178, it states, "Note that the battered woman syndrome is not a legal defense in and of itself; usually the woman's defense is either to claim that she acted out of self-defense or to claim insanity."
9. This 2008 "Criminal Law: The Essentials" source, from Oxford University Press, page 75, states, "First is the battered person syndrome defense, which is somewhat analogous to self-defense, discussed earlier. The difference is that evidence of the battered person syndrome is permitted in some courts as a defense to criminal acts [...]."
10. This 2011 "Practical General Practice: Guidelines for Effective Clinical Management" source, from Elsevier Health Sciences, page 25, states, "Battered Women Syndrome (BWS) is a psychological condition that is characterized by psychological, emotional and behavioral deficits arising from chronic and persistent violence."
11. This 2013 "Encyclopedia of Domestic Violence and Abuse [2 volumes]" source, from ABC-CLIO, page 39, states, "BWS is used to describe the signs and symptoms that battered women may experience as a result of violent and abusive relationships. [...] BWS has also been used in cases of self-defense to explain why battered women use violent means to defend themselves against their battering partners."
12. This 2013 "Understanding Parricide: When Sons and Daughters Kill Parents" source, from OUP USA, page 153, states, "It appears that Georgia is the only state to clearly set forth the elements necessary in order for a defendant to use evidence of being battered by the victim to establish a defense of justification in a prosecution for murder or manslaughter. [...] Although this statute specifically references BWS but not battered person syndrome, it recognizes the latter as analogous. Therefore, this statute is cited extensively in Georgia case law concerning battered person syndrome as evidence of justifiable homicide committed in self-defense."
13. This 2014 "Battered Woman Syndrome as a Legal Defense: History, Effectiveness and Implications" source, from McFarland, page 159, states, "[It] was argued that judicial opinion and legal commentary supported the admission of expert testimony on the battered woman syndrome. By 1983, a substantial number of courts had accepted the testimony, and much of the legal commentary applauded its methodology and use in the courtroom (Kinports, 1988, Schuller, 1994). However, based on the many problems inherent in the syndrome theory, Faigman (1986) recognized the limitations associated with the syndrome and claimed that it had 'little evidentiary value in self-defense cases' (p. 647) for battered women on trial for killing their abuser and strongly believed the syndrome should not be admitted as expert testimony. Further criticism came in a report conducted by the Federal Government in 1994 to investigate and describe the content of expert testimony and its effects of criminal trials where women kill their abusers. It demanded an examination of 'medical and psychological testimony on the validity of battered woman's syndrome as a psychological condition' (VAWA, 1994, as cited in Rothenberg, 2003)."
14. This 2015 "Abuse: An Encyclopedia of Causes, Consequences, and Treatments" source, from ABC-CLIO, page 30, states, ""Battered person syndrome is important because it is considered an affirmative defense, for example, in Georgia, used in combination with a self-defense or justification defense. For example, a woman is charged with the murder of her husband who abused her over a long period of time. However, if the woman can convince a jury that she suffers from battered person syndrome and that 'the circumstances were such that would excite the fears of a reasonable person possessing the same or similar psychological and physical characteristics of the defendant at the time that the deceased victim used force against the defendant, then she may be acquitted by a jury.' "
15. This 2016 "Social Work and Family Violence, Second Edition: Theories, Assessment, and Intervention" source, from Springer Publishing Company, pages 184-185, states, "Lenore E. A. Walker (1984) proposed the concept of the battered woman syndrome (BWS), which [c]onsisted of the pattern of the signs and symptoms that have been found to occur after a women has been physically, sexually, and/or psychologically abused in an intimate relationship, when the partner (usually, but not always a man) exerted power and control over the woman to coerce her into doing whatever he wanted, without regard for her right or feelings (Walker, 2009, p. 42)." Like other sources, the source goes on to speak on the condition as a legal defense.
16 This 2017 "The SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology" source, from Sage Publications, states, "Battered woman syndrome (BWS) is the term used to describe a pattern of signs and symptoms that are commonly found in women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) or domestic violence. The syndrome is listed in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, but is not listed in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as no subcategories of the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are listed in the latter nosology. Nonetheless, because women who evidence the signs and symptoms of BWS also meet the criteria for PTSD, it is often used as a classification to guide treatment plans and forensic issues."