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Portal:Geography Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Geography

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Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. The first recorded use of the word γεωγραφία was as a title of a book by Greek scholar Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be. While geography is specific to Earth, many concepts can be applied more broadly to other celestial bodies in the field of planetary science. One such concept, the first law of geography, proposed by Waldo Tobler, is "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences". (Full article...)

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Land between bodies of water at Point Reyes National Seashore, California
Land or ground, also known as dry land, is the terrestrial surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. It makes up 29% of Earth's surface and includes the continents and a variety of small islands. The zone where land meets sea or lakes is known as the coast. Land is an important part of Earth's climate system and plays important roles in the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and water cycle. Though modern terrestrial plants and animals evolved from aquatic creatures, Earth's first cellular life likely originated on land. Several scientific disciplines study land, including geology and geography. One-third of land is covered in trees, 15% in crops, and a tenth in permanent snow and glaciers. Earth's land surface is almost entirely covered by regolith, a surface layer of rock, soil and minerals that forms the outer part of Earth's crust. (Full article...)

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B & W photo/bust portrait of Edward Drinker Cope, paleontologist, c. 1985, in middle age with grey hair, mustache and chin puff; wearing a dark coat, soft bow tie and a slight smile.

Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American zoologist, paleontologist, comparative anatomist, herpetologist, and ichthyologist. Born to a wealthy Quaker family, Cope distinguished himself as a child prodigy interested in science; he published his first scientific paper at the age of 19. Though his father tried to raise Cope as a gentleman farmer, he eventually acquiesced to his son's scientific aspirations. Cope married his cousin and had one child; the family moved from Philadelphia to Haddonfield, New Jersey, although Cope would maintain a residence and museum in Philadelphia in his later years.

Cope had little formal scientific training, and he eschewed a teaching position for field work. He made regular trips to the American West, prospecting in the 1870s and 1880s, often as a member of United States Geological Survey teams. A personal feud between Cope and paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh led to a period of intense fossil-finding competition now known as the Bone Wars. Cope's financial fortunes soured after failed mining ventures in the 1880s, forcing him to sell off much of his fossil collection. He experienced a resurgence in his career toward the end of his life before dying on April 12, 1897. (Full article...)

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