Outline of domestic violence Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_domestic_violence

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to domestic violence:

Domestic violence – pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship, such as marriage, dating, family, or cohabitation. It is also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV).

What type of thing is domestic violence?[edit]

Domestic violence can be described as all of the following:

  • Violence – use of physical force to apply a state to others contrary to their wishes[1][2][3] and may include some combination of verbal, emotional, economic, physical and sexual abuse.
  • Coercive Control – Braiker identified the following ways that manipulators control their victims:[4]
    • Positive reinforcement: praise, superficial charm, superficial sympathy (crocodile tears), excessive apologizing; money, approval, gifts; attention, facial expressions such as a forced laugh or smile; public recognition.
    • Negative reinforcement: removing one from a negative situation as a reward. For example: "You won't have to walk home if you allow me to do this to you."
    • Intermittent or partial reinforcement: partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt. Partial or intermittent positive reinforcement can encourage the victim to persist.
    • Punishment: berating, yelling, refusing to speak to partner, intimidation, threats, swearing, emotional blackmail, the guilt trap, sulking, crying, and playing the victim.
    • Traumatic one-trial learning: verbal abuse, explosive anger, or other intimidating behavior to establish dominance or superiority; even one incident of such behavior can condition or train victims to avoid upsetting, confronting or contradicting the manipulator.
  • Oppression – exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.[5] It can also be defined as an act or instance of oppressing, the state of being oppressed, and the feeling of being heavily burdened, mentally or physically, by troubles, adverse conditions, and anxiety. Abusers usually humiliate and brainwash the victim verbally, in which the victims may find themselves devalued with emotional distress.[6] The intention is to exploit and dominate in depriving the victim of their most basic rights and needs.[7]
  • Extreme criticism constantly - This is one of the most serious emotional abuse issues. Abusers will use many brainwashing techniques to make the victims question themselves upon their guilt – this may lead to the victims suffering from Post-traumatic stress disorder.[8] Abusers often like to criticise the victims either directly or indirectly. The intention of such an act is to make the victim lose their confidence and doubt their abilities so that they look to their abuser to give them the validation they need. Abusers may also leave the victims isolated from their family and friends and many of them resulted in mental distress like feeling ashamed, terrified and hurt.


Epidemiology of domestic violenceDomestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures,[9] and affects people across society, irrespective of economic status[10] or gender.


The following table includes the forms of violence typically defined as part of Intimate partner violence, which is domestic violence in an intimate relationship by one's spouse or lover. It also includes a column for other family members or partners.

The rate of occurrence varies considerably based upon one's country, socio-economic class, culture, religion, family history and other factors.

Form of Violence Intimate Partners / Domestic Violence Other family members or partners
Acid throwing – violent assault by throwing acid onto the body of a person "with the intention of injuring or disfiguring out of jealousy or revenge."[11][12] checkY checkY
Birth control sabotage – efforts to manipulate another person's use of birth control or to undermine efforts to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Examples include replacing birth control pills with fakes, puncturing condoms and diaphragms, or threats and violence to prevent an individual's attempted use of birth control.[13] checkY
Breast ironing – pounding and massaging of a pubescent girl's breasts using heated objects in an attempt to make them stop developing or disappear.[14][15] checkY
Bride burning – form of domestic violence for unresolved dowry issues resulting in death. checkY
Bride-buying – illegal industry or trade of "purchasing a bride" to become property that can be resold or repurchased for reselling.[16][17] checkY
Dating abuse – pattern of abusive behavior exhibited by one or both partners in a dating relationship. checkY checkY
Domestic violence and pregnancy – abusive behavior towards a pregnant woman that whether physical, verbal or emotional, produces many adverse physical and psychological effects for the mother and fetus. checkY
Dowry death – deaths of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry. checkY
Economic abuse – form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources,[18] which diminishes the victim's earning capacity and forces financial reliance on the perpetrator.[18][19][20] checkY checkY
Elder abuse – "a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person."[21] checkY checkY
Female genital mutilation – the mutilation of the exterior vulvar structures of girls and women.
Foot binding – binding the feet of young girls painfully tight to prevent further growth. checkY
Honor killing – homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief of the perpetrators that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family or community. Honor killings are directed mostly against women and girls, but have been extended to men. Also spelled "honour killing" (American and British spelling differences). checkY checkY
Marital rape – non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse, and as such, is a form of domestic violence, and sexual abuse. Although repudiated by international conventions and increasingly criminalized, in many countries, spousal rape either remains legal, or is illegal but widely tolerated and accepted as a husband's prerogative. Also known as "spousal rape". checkY
Murder of pregnant women – type of homicide often resulting from domestic violence by a spouse or intimate partner violence (IPV).[22] checkY
Parental abuse by children – parents subject to levels of childhood aggression in excess of normal childhood aggressive outbursts, typically in the form of verbal or physical abuse. checkY
Parental abuse of children – physical or psychological/emotional mistreatment of children. It is often distinguished from domestic violence as its own form of violence. checkY
Psychological abuse – form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Such abuse is often associated with situations of power imbalance, such as abusive relationships, bullying, child abuse and workplace bullying.[23][24][25] Psychological abuse is also referred to as "emotional abuse" or "mental abuse". checkY checkY
Physical abuse – abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm.[26][27] checkY checkY
Sati – religious funeral practice among some Indian communities in which a recently widowed woman either voluntarily or by use of force and coercion would have immolated herself on her husband’s funeral pyre.[28] checkY
Sexual violence – any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work.[29] checkY checkY
Spiritual abuse – serious form of abuse which occurs when a person in religious authority or a person with a unique spiritual practice misleads and maltreats another person in the name of God or church or in the mystery of any spiritual concept. checkY checkY
Stalking – unwanted and obsessive attention by an individual or group to another person. Stalking behaviors are related to harassment and intimidation and may include following the victim in person and/or monitoring them via the internet. checkY checkY
Teen dating violence – physical, sexual, or psychological / emotional violence within a dating relationship.[30] checkY
Verbal abuse – often used to control the victim and can lead to significant detriment to one's self-esteem, emotional well-being, and physical state. checkY checkY


Domestic violence affects people across society, irrespective of age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, religion or socio-economic status. Stop Abuse For Everyone (SAFE), a United States domestic violence organization, advocates for an "inclusive" model of domestic violence, focusing on groups that are "lacking in services", such as abused men, gay, lesbian, intersex, and transgender victims, and the elderly.[31]


Some forms of domestic violence are unique to women victims:


Male victims of domestic abuse:

A large study, compiled by Martin S. Fiebert, shows that women are as likely to be abusive to men, but the men are less likely to be hurt. However, he noted, men are seriously injured in 38% of the cases in which "extreme aggression" is used. Fiebert additionally noted that his work was not meant to minimize the serious effects of men who abuse women.[nb 1][32][33] Women are far more likely to use weapons, such as throwing a plate or firing a gun.[34] The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) contends that a national survey, supported by NIJ, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics that examined more serious assaults, does not support the conclusion of similar rates of male and female spousal assaults. This survey was conducted within a safety or crime context and found more partner abuse by men against women.[35][nb 2] A study published in the Violence & Victims Journal Vol. 1 concluded that a feminist analysis of Domestic Abuse was necessary to combat common misconceptions. The study found that 92% of women who used violence against their male partners were in self-defense, and that violence reciprocated by victims may be an integral part of abuse victimology.[36]


Abuse in same-sex relationships is under-researched area of domestic violence, with a very wide range of prevalence estimates, and with fewer resources available for shelter and counseling.[37]


Within a family, children may be victims of domestic child abuse in various ways:

A child may be affected by domestic violence even when the child is not the direct target:

Parents and the elderly[edit]

Domestic violence can also be perpetrated by children against their parents:

Research concepts[edit]

Measurement instruments[edit]

  • Conflict tactics scale – research method for identifying intimate partner violence by measuring the conflict tactic behaviors.

Theoretical constructs[edit]

  • Cycle of abusesocial cycle theory to explain patterns of behavior of a violent intimate relationship: Tension building phase, acting-out phase, reconciliation / honeymoon phase, and calm phase, which leads back to the tension building phase.[38]
  • Cycle of violence
    • Within a relationship – repeated acts of violence as a cyclical pattern, associated with high emotions and doctrines of retribution or revenge. The pattern, or cycle, repeats and can happen many times during a relationship. Each phase may last a different length of time and over time the level of violence may increase.
    • Intergenerational cycle of violence – violence that is passed from father to son or daughter, parent to child, or sibling to sibling.[39]
  • Misandry – the hatred or dislike of men or boys, which manifests like Misogyny.
  • Misogyny – the hatred or dislike of women or girls, may be manifested in varying degrees of intensity, like teaching girls or women to feel self-contempt or violence.[40]
  • Relational disorder – dysfunction within a relationship, versus being specific to a specific individual's dysfunction.[41]

Partner dynamics[edit]

  • Situational couple violence – arises infrequently out of conflicts that escalate to arguments and then to violence, rather than a general pattern of control. It is likely the most common type of intimate partner violence. Women are "almost as likely" as men to be abusers, however, women are more likely to be physically injured, require police intervention and become fearful of their mates.[42]
  • Intimate terrorism (IT) – pattern of ongoing control using emotional, physical and other forms of domestic violence. It is what was traditionally the definition of domestic violence depicted in the "Power and Control Wheel"[43] which illustrates the different and inter-related forms of abuse.[44]
  • Violent resistance (VR), or "self-defense" – violence perpetrated by victims against their abusive partners.[45] It is generally used infrequently because, men are often better able to physically overpower women.[42]
  • Common couple violence (CCV) – domestic violence "in which conflict occasionally gets ‘out of hand,’ leading usually to ‘minor’ forms of violence, and rarely escalates into serious or life-threatening forms of violence."[46]
  • Mutual violent control (MVC) – rare type of intimate partner violence that occurs when both partners act in a violent manner, battling for control.[47]


The incidence of abuse may result in the following:


  • Domestic violence court – specialized courts designed to improve victim safety and enhance defendant accountability, created in response to frustration among victim advocates, judges and attorneys who saw the same litigants cycling through the justice system repeatedly.
  • Evidence-based prosecution of domestic violence – prosecutors aggressively trying domestic violence cases, basing their cases on evidence rather than victim cooperation, resulting in higher conviction rates.[51]
  • Injunctionequitable remedy in the form of a court order that requires a party to do or refrain from doing certain acts. A party that fails to comply with an injunction faces criminal or civil penalties and may have to pay damages or accept sanctions. In some cases, breaches of injunctions are considered serious criminal offenses that merit arrest and possible prison sentences.
  • Restraining order – requires a party to do, or to refrain from doing, certain acts. A party that refuses to comply with an order faces criminal or civil penalties and may have to pay damages or accept sanctions. Breaches of restraining orders can be considered serious criminal offences that merit arrest and possible prison sentences. The term is most commonly used in reference to domestic violence, harassment, stalking or sexual assault.
  • Battered woman defense – a self-defense measure used in court that the person accused of an assault / murder was suffering from battered person syndrome.

Religion and domestic violence[edit]

Domestic violence by region[edit]




Some of the major academic researchers on domestic violence are:


Some of the most notable domestic violence activists are:

International organizations and conventions[edit]

Domestic violence-related media[edit]


Books, non-fictional[edit]

  • Mommie Dearest (1978), a memoir described the author's upbringing by an abusive alcoholic mother.
  • Life with Billy (1986), describing a woman's life with her abusive husband.
  • The War on Women (2007), about domestic violence in Canada.

Books, fictional[edit]




See also[edit]


  1. ^ Martin S. Fiebert of the Department of Psychology at California State University, Long Beach, has compiled an annotated bibliography of research relating to spousal abuse by women on men. This bibliography examines 275 scholarly investigations: 214 empirical studies and 61 reviews and/or analyses appear to demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. The aggregate sample size in the reviewed studies exceeds 365,000.[32] In a Los Angeles Times article about male victims of domestic violence, Fiebert suggests that "...consensus in the field is that women are as likely as men to strike their partner but that—as expected—women are more likely to be injured than men."[33]
  2. ^ The National Institute of Justice states that studies finding equal or greater frequency of abuse by women against men are based on data compiled through the Conflict Tactics Scale. This survey tool was developed in the 1970s and may not be appropriate for intimate partner violence research because it does not measure control, coercion, or the motives for conflict tactics; it also leaves out sexual assault and violence by ex-spouses or partners and does not determine who initiated the violence.[35]
  1. ^ Violence., Merriam-Webster Dictionary Retrieved January 8, 2009.
  2. ^ Violence., Oxford English Dictionary Retrieved January 8, 2009.
  3. ^ Violence. Archived 2008-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, American Heritage Dictionary, Violence, Retrieved January 8, 2009.
  4. ^ Braiker, Harriet B. (2004) Who's Pulling Your Strings? How to Break The Cycle of Manipulation ISBN 0-07-144672-9.
  5. ^ Oppression. Archived 2012-07-29 at archive.today Merriam Webster Online.
  6. ^ "Coercive control". Womens Aid. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  7. ^ "So, what exactly is coercive control?". Laura Richards. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  8. ^ Allerh, Rhalou (2020-12-09). "14 signs your partner is trying to control you". Netdoctor. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  9. ^ Watts, C.; Zimmerman, C. (2002). "Violence against women: global scope and magnitude". Lancet. 359 (9313): 1232–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08221-1. PMID 11955557. S2CID 38436965.
  10. ^ Waits, Kathleen (1984). "The Criminal Justice System's Response to Battering: Understanding the Problem, Forging the Solutions". Washington Law Review. 60: 267–330.
  11. ^ Karmakar, R.N. (2003). Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. Academic Publishers. ISBN 81-87504-69-2.
  12. ^ Vij, Krishan. (2003) Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: Principles and Practice, 5th Edition. Elsevier India. p. 462. ISBN 978-81-312-2684-1.
  13. ^ Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Hathaway, Jeanne E; Silverman, Jay G (2007), "Male Partner Pregnancy-Promoting Behaviors and Adolescent Partner Violence: Findings from a Qualitative Study with Adolescent Females", Ambulatory Pediatrics, 7 (5): 360–6, doi:10.1016/j.ambp.2007.05.007, PMID 17870644
  14. ^ Sa'ah, Randy Joe. Cameroon girls battle 'breast ironing' BBC News. June 23, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2008.
  15. ^ Gidley, Ruth; Rowling, Megan. Millions of Cameroon girls suffer "breast ironing". Archived 2010-05-21 at the Wayback Machine AlertNet, Reuters July 7, 2006. Reproduced at the Child Rights Information Network. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  16. ^ Marshall, Samantha, Joanne Lee-Young, and Matt Forney, Vietnamese Women Are Kidnapped and Later Sold in China as Brides. The Wall Street Journal. August 3, 1999.
  17. ^ Rose, Winifred Hodge. The Purchase of a Bride: Bargain, Gift, Hamingja, Frigga's Web.
  18. ^ a b Adams, Adrienne; Sullivan, Bybee; Greeson (2008). "Development of the Scale of Economic Abuse". Violence Against Women. 14 (5): 563–588. doi:10.1177/1077801208315529. PMID 18408173. S2CID 36997173.
  19. ^ Brewster, M. P. (2003). "Power and Control Dynamics in Pre-stalking and Stalking Situations". Journal of Family Violence. 18 (4): 207–217. doi:10.1023/a:1024064214054. S2CID 38354784.
  20. ^ Sanders, Cynthia. Organizing for Economic Empowerment of Battered Women: Women’s Savings Accounts. Center for Social Development, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  21. ^ Action on Elder Abuse. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  22. ^ Campbell, JC, Glass, N, Sharps, PW, Laughon, K, and Bloom, T (2007) Intimate Partner Homicide: Review and Implications of Research and Policy. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. (8), 246–269.
  23. ^ Dutton, D. G. (1994). "Patriarchy and wife assault: The ecological fallacy". Violence and Victims. 9 (2): 125–140. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.9.2.167. S2CID 35155731.
  24. ^ Maiuro, Roland D.; O'Leary, K. Daniel. (2000). Psychological Abuse in Violent Domestic Relations. New York: Springer Publishing Company. p. 197. ISBN 0-8261-1374-5.
  25. ^ Child Sexual Abuse. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, Health Canada. 1997. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  26. ^ Haugan, Grethemor Skagseth; Nøttestad, Jim Aage.Norway : Treatment Program For Men Who Batter Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Trondheim, Norway.
  27. ^ Giardino, Angelo P.; Giardino, Eileen R. Child Abuse & Neglect: Physical Abuse December 12, 2008. eMedicine. WebMD.
  28. ^ Sati. SOS Sexisme. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
  29. ^ World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002. p. 149.
  30. ^ "Teen dating violence" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved August 13, 2011.
  31. ^ Main page Stop Abuse For Everyone. 2010. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  32. ^ a b Fiebert, Martin S. (June 2012). "References examining assaults by women on their spouses or male partners: an annotated bibliography". csulb.edu. California State University, Long Beach.
  33. ^ a b Parsons, Dana (10 April 2002). "Orange County: Pitcher's case throws a curve at common beliefs about abuse". Los Angeles Times.
  34. ^ Violence by Intimates Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends. US Department of Justice. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
  35. ^ a b Measuring Intimate Partner (Domestic) Violence National Institute of Justice. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  36. ^ Jacobson, Neil; Gottman, John (2007). When men batter women: new insights into ending abusive relationships. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9781416551331.
  37. ^ Ten Things Lesbians Should Discuss with their Health Care Providers. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  38. ^ Walker, Lenore E. (1979) The Battered Woman. New York: Harper and Row.
  39. ^ Intergenerational Cycle Of Abuse AbusiveLove.com. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  40. ^ Johnson, Allan G. (2000). The Blackwell dictionary of sociology: A user's guide to sociological language. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-631-21681-0.
  41. ^ Michael B. First, MD. A Research Agenda for DSM-V: Summary of the DSM-V Preplanning White Papers. Published in May 2002.
  42. ^ a b A Sociologist’s Perspective on Domestic Violence, Archived 2013-10-20 at the Wayback Machine A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D. Theodora Ooms, interviewer. Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP). p. 3. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  43. ^ Power and Control Wheel, National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  44. ^ A Sociologist’s Perspective on Domestic Violence, Archived 2013-10-20 at the Wayback Machine A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D. Theodora Ooms, interviewer following May 2006 conference. Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP). pp. 2–4. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  45. ^ Bachman, R.; Carmody, D. (1994). "Fighting Fire with Fire: The Effects of Victim Resistance in Intimate Versus Stranger Perpetrated Assaults Against Females". Journal of Family Violence. 9 (4): 317–31. doi:10.1007/BF01531942. S2CID 25399778.
  46. ^ Johnson, M. P. (1995). "Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women". Journal of Marriage and the Family. 57 (2): 283–294. doi:10.2307/353683. JSTOR 353683.
  47. ^ Saunders D.G. (1998). "Wife Abuse, Husband Abuse, or Mutual Combat? A Feminist Perspective on the Empirical Findings." Feminist perspectives on wife abuse. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. pp. 90–113. ISBN 0-8039-3053-4.
  48. ^ a b c Shipway, Lynn. (2004). Domestic violence: a handbook for health professionals. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28220-8.
  49. ^ a b Mayhew, P.; Mirlees-Black, C.; Percy, A. (1996) The 1996 British Crime Survey England & Wales. Home Office.
  50. ^ Hawton, K.; van Heeringen, K. (2009). "Suicide". Lancet. 373 (9672): 1372–81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60372-X. PMID 19376453. S2CID 208790312.
  51. ^ Fagan, Jeffrey. (1996).The Criminalization of Domestic Violence: Promises and Limits National Institute of Justice. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  52. ^ UNFPA. Afghanistan's First Family Response Unit Open for Business. January 24, 2006.
  53. ^ Act As One Queensland Government. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  54. ^ "Wife harassing you? Call for help." IBN. November 29, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
  55. ^ Book Review: Who Stole Feminism? How Women have Betrayed Women? Save Indian Family. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
  56. ^ "Batterers' intervention recidivism rates lowest known to date". Mountain Democrat (Placerville, CA). 30 April 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  57. ^ Contemporary Family Therapy. Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  58. ^ Family Process Archived 2001-12-16 at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ Family Relations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  60. ^ Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024 (Print) ISSN 1573-2843 (Online), Springer.
  61. ^ Journal of Family Psychology
  62. ^ Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Sage Publications. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  63. ^ Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
  64. ^ Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. Sage Publications. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  65. ^ Violence Against Women. Sage Publications. Retrieved November 22, 2011.

External links[edit]