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List of sultans on the Comoros Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_on_the_Comoros

Several sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century. Other uses depending on the island could also be styled fani, mfaume and ntibe. Unlike sultans in many other Arab nations, these sultans had little real power. At one time alone on the island of Ndzuwani or Nzwani (today Anjouan), 40 fanis and other chiefs shared power of the island; Ngazidja (today Grand Comore) was at many times divided into 11 sultanates. This article addresses the major ones.

The term Shirazis (derived from the former Persian capital Shiraz) is a reference to Iranian roots, in some dynasties. The sultans of Hamamvu (Washirazi sultans) is a surviving dynasty that claims origins in Persia line and carries an extant connection to the Washirazi people of the East African Coast.

The following five cities have been collectively proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage site:

They have not yet been inscribed as such.

Sultans of and on Ndzuwani (Anjouan)[edit]

Names and Dates taken from John Stewart's African States and Rulers (2005).[1]

# Name Reign Start Reign End Notes
1 Muhammad I c. 1500 c. 1506 Founder
2 Hassan c. 1506 ? -
3 Muhammad II ? ?
4 Msindra ? ?
5 Alimah I ? c. 1590 First female sultan of Anjouan. Otherwise known as Halima.
6 Sayid Alawi c. 1590 c. 1605 Regent
7 Hussein c. 1605 c. 1610
8 Sayid Idarus c. 1610 c. 1619 Regent
9 Sayid Abu Bakr c. 1619 c. 1632 Regent
10 Alimah II c. 1632 c. 1676 Second female sultan of Anjouan. Also known as Halima II.
11 Alimah III c. 1676 c. 1711 Third female sultan of Anjouan. Also known as Halima III.
12 Sheikh Salim c. 1711 1741
13 Sheikh Ahmad 1741 1782 Also known as Said Ahmad.
14 Abdallah I 1782 1788
15 Alimah IV 1788 1792 Fourth female sultan of Anjouan. Also known as Halimah IV.
Abdallah I 1792 1796 Second reign
16 Alawi I 1796 1816 Also known as Mwinye Fani
17 Abdallah II bin Alawi 1816 1832
18 Ali 1832 1833 Also known as Ali bin Salim
Abdallah II bin Alawi 1833 1836 Second reign
19 Alawi II 1836 1837 Also known as Saidi Alawi bin Abdallah
20 Salim I 1837 1852 Also known as Salim bin Alawi
21 Abdallah III 1852 February 1891 Also known as Saidi Abdallah bin Salim. The Sultanate of Anjouan became part of the Mayotte Protectorate in 1866.[1]
22 Salim II February 1891 2 April 1891 Also known as Salim bin Abdallah
24 Said Omar 2 April 1891 14 April 1892 Also known as Saidi Omar bin Said Hasan
25 Said Ali 14 April 1892 25 July 1912 Also known as Said Ali bin Said Omar

Sultans of and on Mayotte[edit]

Names and Dates taken from John Stewart's African States and Rulers (3rd edition, 2006).[2]

Mayotte was conquered by the Sultanate of Anjouan in 1835, after which it was ruled by Anjouani qadis (governors) until 1841 when it became a protectorate under the French.[2]

# Name Reign Start Reign End Notes
1 Hassan I c. 1515 c. 1530
2 Muhammad c. 1530 c. 1550
3 Isa c. 1550 c. 1590
4 Amina c. 1590 c. 1596 Queen Regent
5 Bwana Fuma ibn Ali c. 1596 c. 1620 Regent
6 Ali I c. 1620 c. 1640
7 Umar c. 1640 c. 1680
8 Ali II c. 1680 c. 1700
9 Aisa c. 1700 c. 1714 Queen Regent
10 Monavo Fani c. 1714 c. 1720 Queen Regent
11 Abu Bakr c. 1720 1727
12 Salim I 1727 1752
13 Bwana Kombo I 1752 1790
14 Salim II 1790 1807
15 Salih 1807 1817
19 Ahmad 1817 1829
20 Bwana Kombo II 1829 1832
21 Andrianametaka 1832 19 November 1835
Umar 19 November 1835 c. 1838 Anjouan Qadi
Adriantsuli c. 1838 25 March 1841 Anjouan Qadi

Sultans on Ngazidja (Grande Comore)[edit]

Sultans of Bambao[edit]

Reign (start) Reign (end) Name Variations Notes
c. ??? c. ??? Ngoma Mrahafu
c. ??? c. ??? Mwasi Pirusa
c. ??? c. ??? Fum Mbavu Inkwaba
c. ??? c. ??? Mwenye Mji wa Mwenye Mambo
c.??? c.??? Inye wa Mantsi
c.??? c.??? Mwenye Mji wa Mwanze
c.??? c.??? Tambavu mna Muhame wa Saidi
c.??? c.??? Tambavu Inkwaba
c.?? c.??? Fum Nau wa Kori Dozi He was the first ruler of Bamboa to be given the title (Sultan) Tibe, i.e. Paramount ruler of the island.
c.??? c.??? Mwenye Mji wa Mvunza Panga
c.??? c.??? Mla Nau Second ruler with the hegemonic title Sultan tibe.
c.?? c.?? Fozi Wa
c.??? c.??? Suja Oma Inkwaba
c.??? c.??? Nyau wa Faume First female ruler of Bamboa.
c.??? c.??? Bamba Oma wa Ju Mamba He ruled a second after Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome's first ruling period.
c.??? c.??? Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome The fourth ruler to styled Sultan tibe. He ruled a second time after Mamba's brief second ruling period which was then again interrupted by a brief period of rule under Saidi Bakari followed by his third ruling period. (A possible explanation is a period of anarchy with multiple rulers).
c.??? c.??? Saidi Bakari
c.??? c.??? Mwenye Mambo
c.??? c.??? Ju Mamba
c.???/1874? c.???/??? Mohamed bin Ahmed He ruled twice in the 1800s the second time after Abdallah bin Saidi Hamza's first ruling period.
c.??? c.???
c.??? c.???
c.??? c.???
c.??? c.???
c.??? c.???
c.??? c.??? shah waPantat jumbu Kulup

Sultans of Itsandra[edit]

Styled "Mfaume" (in Shingazidja) or Mfalme (in Kiswahili)

  • Fey Owa Mbaya
  • Fey Mwenza
  • Fey Jumbe
  • Ju Mwamba Pirusa
  • Zombe Ilingo
  • Nguzo waInehili
  • Tibe waKanzu
  • Mkongo
  • Mna Musa Hibu
  • Muhammadi Saidi
  • Mvunza Panga
  • Fey Beja waWabeja(f)
  • Fum Nau waKori Dozi
  • Fey Fumu
  • Bwana Fumu
  • Fey Fumu (2nd time)
  • Bwana Fumu (2nd time)
  • Fey Fumu (3rd time)
  • Fum Mbavu
  • Musa Fumu waFey Fumu
  • Tibe Bamba
  • Musa Fumu waFey Fumu (2nd time)
  • Tibe Bamba (2nd time)
  • Musa Fumu waFey Fumu (3rd time)
  • Tibe Bamba (3rd time)
  • Musa Fumu waFey Fumu (4th time) (d. c.1883)
  • Tibe Bamba (4th time)
  • Kalega

Sultans of Mitsamihuli[edit]

Styled "Mfaume/Mfalme"

  • Mahame Msahi
  • Fozi waMahame
  • Mbantsi
  • Ju Mambu Madi waMusa Fumu
  • Jumbe Fumu Mfaume waDomba (possibly ruled jointly with Kori Dazi)
  • Kori Dazi
  • Jumbe Fumu Mfaume waDomba (as sole Mfaume)
  • Tambavu waJumbe Fumu
  • Fozi
  • Suja Fumu Mbamba (possibly ruled jointly with Mba Fumu wa Jumbe Fumu)
  • Mba Fumu waJumbe Fumu
  • Mba Fumu waTambwe (possibly ruled jointly with Jumbe Fumu wa Jumbe Mfumu)
  • Jumbe Fumu waJumbe Mfumu
  • Mbandhi waBwana Haji (possibly ruled jointly with Abdallah bin Ahmad)
  • Abdallah bin Ahmed
  • Bwana Fumu (reign ended c.1886)
  • mukou

Sultans of Washili[edit]

Styled "Mfaume/Mfalme"

  • Mohama Mdume waBeja
  • Fey Zinda waMawana
  • Fey Zinda waMakasara
  • Tambwe Musa Fumu
  • Tambwe waHabadi (possibly co-ruler with Mfaume Tambwe Musa Fumu)
  • Jumbe Fumu waMbala Bwani
  • Tambwe No Fumu waMba Nau (d. 1815)
  • Jumwamba Mwenye Majini
  • Mba Fumu waSuja Fumu Bamba
  • Shekhe Salim (possibly co-ruler with Mfaume Mba Fumu waShuja Fumu Bamba)
  • Mavunzanga
  • Tibe Mbe
  • Abudu

Mukou

Sultans of Bajini[edit]

Styled "Mfaume/Mfalme"

  • Mwenye Bamba I
  • Bamba Jumbe
  • Tambe Mbafu waFum Nau
  • Ju Mamba Oma waMba Nau
  • Mwambatsi (co-ruler with Mfaume Ju Mamba Oma waMba Nau)
  • Mwenye Bamba II
  • Bamba Oma
  • Suja Oma waTambwe (co-ruler with Mfaume Bamba Oma)
  • Shekani (co-ruler with Mfaume Bamba Oma)
  • Fumu Oma
  • Oma waDari (co-ruler with Mfaume Fumu Oma) (d. 1884))
  • Ja Mhaba (f)
  • Hashimu bin Ahmed
  • Hadija bint Ahmed (f)
  • Hashimu bin Ahmed (2nd time)
  • 1886–89 uncertain Mfaume or interregnum
  • Hashimu bin Ahmed (3rd time)(d. 1889)

Sultans of Hambuu[edit]

Styled "Mfaume/Mfalme"

  • Beja Mbuyuni
  • Nau waMigira
  • Nau waMoro
  • Fumu Nau
  • Yasi Azi
  • Demani Mtango
  • Fumu Jimba waIdimani
  • Mahdi Jimbwa waTangwe
  • Dari waMba Nau (co-ruler with Mfaume Mahdi Jimbwa waTangwe
  • Jumbe Fumu waSuja Oma Inkwaba
  • Suja Oma waTambwe
  • Mrunda Mijo
  • Fey Mwando waTambwe (co-ruler with Mfaume Mrunda Mijo)
  • Bamba Oma waJumamba
  • Tambwe waHinye
  • Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani
  • Bamba Oma waOma (co-ruler with Mfaume Abudu bin Mohamed bin Sultani)

Sultans of Hamahame[edit]

Styled "Mfaume/Mfalme"

  • Nye Hila
  • Haji waNo Fumu
  • Suja Oma Mshinda Kodo
  • Jumbe Fumu Madi
  • Bwana Haji Musa
  • Simai
  • Dari Oma
  • Fumu Oma waNasiri
  • Suja Oma waFumu
  • Mba Fumu waBwana Haji
  • Suja Oma Bwana

Sultans of Mbwankuu[edit]

The sultan was also styled Mfaume/Mfalme; the only known incumbent (no dates) was: Bwana Fumu.

Sultans of Mbude[edit]

Sultans (also styled Mfaume/Mfalme) (no dates available):

  • .... – .... Msa Mwinza
  • .... – .... Bamba
  • .... – .... Lwali
  • .... – .... Jumbe Fumu wa Tambwe
  • .... – .... Dari Mbamba
  • .... – .... Mwandhi Oma wa Jumbe Fumu
  • .... – .... Bamba Oma wa Suja Funu
  • .... – .... Jumbe Fumu Mna Mango
  • .... – .... Bamba wa Madi Jimba
  • .... – .... Jumbe Fumu wa Sinai

Sultans of Domba[edit]

The sultan was also styled Mfaume/Mfalme; the only known incumbent (no dates) was: Febeja Mambwe.

Sultans of and on Mwali (Mohéli)[edit]

  • 1830–1842 – Ramanetaka (also Abderremane)(d. 1842)
  • 1842–1865 – Raketaka Jombe Sudy (f) (1st time) (c.1836–1878) (after 1851, Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane)
  • 1842–1849 – Regency (Ravao (f), Tsivandini (through 1847))
  • 1865–1874 – Mohamed bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara (c.1859–1874)
  • 1874–1878 – Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane (f) (2nd time) (c.1836–1878)
  • 1878–1885 – Abderremane bin Saidi Hamadi Makadara (c.1860–1885)
  • 1885–1886 – Mohammed Shekhe (b. c.1830)
  • 1886–1888 – Marjani bin Abudu Shekhe (b. c.1851)
  • 1888–1909 – Salima Machamba bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara (f) (never acceded) (1874–1964)
    • 1888–1889 – Regents (Fadeli bin Othman, Balia Juma (f), Abudu Tsivandini)
    • 1889–1897 – Mahmudu bin Mohamed Makadara, Regent (1863–1898)
  • 1909– French colony of Moheli

See also[edit]

Sources and external links[edit]

(incomplete; most material still to be worked in)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stewart, John (2005). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-7864-2562-8.
  2. ^ a b Stewart, John (2006). African States and Rulers (3rd ed.). London: McFarland. p. 158. ISBN 0-7864-2562-8.