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List of queens regnant Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_queens_regnant

Queen Elizabeth II, the longest-reigning queen regnant in history, has reigned over 32 independent countries, with her realms being in Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.

This is a list of current and former female monarchs, including Queens regnant, Empresses regnant, Pharaohs and monarchs by other titles (Grand Duchess, Princess etc.). If the Queen ruled as a regent, this is indicated by "(regent)" following the name. Where a queen had no powers but only the title, "(titular)" is added instead.

A queen consort being styled a queen by virtue of marrying a monarch are not included.

The following is an incomplete list of queens who are well known from popular writings, although many ancient and poorly documented ruling queens (such as those from Africa and Oceania) are omitted. Section 1 lists Queens regnant: Queens who ruled in their own right. Section 2 lists Queens regent: Queens who have ruled on behalf of a monarch who was a minor, absent or incapacitated. Section 3 includes Legendary Queens. Section 4 lists Titular Queens: Queens who ruled in their own right, but had no constitutional standing or regal powers while in power. Section 5 lists various female leaders who were referred to as "Chieftainess."

Queens regnant[edit]

Africa[edit]

North Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]

Hoggar

Jarawa

Egypt[edit]

Indigenous dynasties

Cleopatra VII

Ptolemaic dynasties

Ptolemy II instituted a new practice of brother-sister marriage when he married his full sister, Arsinoe II. They became, in effect, co-rulers, and both took the epithet Philadelphus ("Brother-Loving" and "Sister-Loving"). Because of this custom many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. The only Ptolemaic Queens who ruled alone were Cleopatra II, Berenice III and Berenice IV. Cleopatra VI did co-rule, but it was with another female, Berenice IV. Cleopatra VII officially co-ruled with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV, and Ptolemy XV, but effectively, she ruled Egypt alone

Bahri Mamluk dynasty

Libya[edit]

Cyrene

Sudan[edit]

Kandake was a title for queens, queen mothers, and queens consort in Nubia, but ruling Kandakes may have included:

West Africa[edit]

Benin[edit]

Hogbonu

  • Hude (ruled 1746–1752)
Gambia[edit]
Ghana[edit]

Akan state of Denkyira

Akan state of Dwaben

Guinea-Bissau[edit]

Orango

Roxa

Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

Baoule

  • Pokou (ruled 1750–1760)[2] - Queen and founder of the Baoule tribe
  • Akwa Boni (ruled 1760–1790),[2] Pokou's niece who succeeded her to the throne
Nigeria[edit]

Bornu Empire

Daura

  • Kufuru
  • Ginu
  • Yakumo
  • Yakunya
  • Wanzamu
  • Yanbamu
  • Gizir-gizir
  • Inna-Gari
  • Daurama
  • Ga-Wata
  • Shata
  • Fatatuma
  • Sai-Da-Mata
  • Ja-Mata
  • Ha-Mata
  • Zama
  • Sha-Wata
  • Daurama II

Igodomigodo

Ondo Kingdom

Zazzau

  • Amina - There is controversy among scholars as to the date of her reign, one school placing her in the mid-15th century, and a second placing her reign in the mid to late 16th century

Yoruba people

Oyo Empire

Senegal[edit]

Lingeer's leadership activities were carried out at the highest tier, as a co-monarch.

Sierra Leone[edit]

Koya

Central Africa[edit]

Angola[edit]

Jaga

Matamba

Nzinga, warrior queen of Ndongo and Matamba

Mbunda Kingdom

Ndongo

Kingdom of Jinga

Kingdom of kongo

There were two female monarchs during Kongo Civil War.

Cameroon[edit]

East Africa[edit]

Comoros[edit]

Ndzuwani (Anjouan)

  • Alimah I (ruled during the 16th century - unknown start date, reigned ended in c. 1590)
  • Alimah II (ruled 1632–1676)
  • Alimah III (ruled 1676–1711)
  • Alimah IV (ruled 1788–1792) - she was the de facto ruler of Anjouan with sultan Abdallah I during his reigns in 1782-1788 and 1792-1796

Mayotte

  • Amina (1590-1596)
  • Aisa (1700-1714)
  • Monavo Fani (1714-1720)

Bamboa

Itsandra

Bajini

Mwali

Zewditu I, Empress of Ethiopia
Ethiopia[edit]

Sultanate of Harar

Kenya[edit]

Names taken from Female Rule in the Indian Ocean World (1300-1900).[3]

Madagascar[edit]

The female monarchs of Madagascar traditional states were:[4]

Ambohidratrimo

Boina Kingdom

Menabe

Bemihisatra

Bemazava

Antankarana

Imarovatana

Betsimisaraka

Mauritius[edit]
Somaliland[edit]

Sultanate of Ifat

South Sudan[edit]

Shilluk Kingdom

  • Abudok, the eighth ruler (and only queen) of the Shilluk[5]
Tanzania[edit]

Names taken from Female Rule in the Indian Ocean World (1300-1900).[3]

Uganda[edit]

Bunyoro

South Africa[edit]

Malawi[edit]
Namibia[edit]

Gciriku

Kwangali

South Africa[edit]

Lobedu people

The Modjadji or Rain Queen is the hereditary queen of Lobedu, the people of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The succession to the position of Rain Queen is matrilineal, meaning that the Queen's eldest daughter is the heir, and that males are not entitled to inherit the throne at all. The Rain Queen is believed to have special powers, including the ability to control the clouds and rainfall.

Zambia[edit]
Zimbabwe[edit]

America[edit]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]
Mexico[edit]

Aztec Empire

Ecatepec

Palenque

Tepetlaoztoc

  • Azcasuch (ruled late 15th-early 16th century)

Tzacoalco

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]
Bahamas[edit]
Barbados[edit]
Belize[edit]
Grenada[edit]
Guatemala[edit]

El Perú

Naranjo

Tikal

Jamaica[edit]
Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]
Saint Lucia[edit]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]

South America[edit]

Brazil[edit]
Guyana[edit]
Suriname[edit]
Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Asia[edit]

East Asia[edit]

China[edit]
  • Wu Zetian (Chinese: 武則天) - Empress regnant of China, ruling from 690 to 705. She was the only orthodox reigning empress in the history of China.

Although Wu Zetian is the only undisputed empress regnant recognized in orthodox Chinese historiography, there are two other documented cases of a woman holding the title of "Empress regnant" in Chinese history:

Sumpa

In Tibet, there was "Kingdom of Women (Chinese: 女國)" related to Sumpa. Several ruling queens who ruled there were recorded in Chinese history books.

Kara Del

Japan[edit]
Korea[edit]

Silla

South Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Chandra dynasty

India[edit]

Alupa dynasty

Arakkal dynasty

Bhauma-Kara dynasty

Bhopal State

  • Qudsia Begum (ruled 1819–1837) - in 1819, 18-year-old Qudsia Begum (also known as Gohar Begum) took over the reins after the assassination of her husband, Nawab Muiz Muhammad Khan Bahadur. She was the first female ruler of Bhopal. She declared that her 2-year-old daughter Sikander would follow her as the ruler; none of the male family members dared to challenge her decision. She ruled till 1837, when she died having adequately prepared her daughter for ruling the state.
  • Begum Sultan Shah Jehan (ruled 1844–1860 and 1868–1901) - Shahjahan was the only surviving child of Sikandar Begum, sometime Nawab of Bhopal by correct title, and her husband Jahangir Mohammed Khan. She was recognised as ruler of Bhopal in 1844 at the age of six; her mother wielded power as regent during her minority. However, in 1860, her mother Sikandar Begum was recognised by the British as ruler of Bhopal in her own right, and Shahjahan was set aside.
  • Begum Nawab Sikandar (ruled 1860–1868)
  • Begum Kaikhusrau Jahan (ruled 1901–1926)

British Raj

Gerusoppa

Holkar dynasty

Kakatiya dynasty

Kashmir

  • Sugandha (ruled 904–906)
  • Didda (ruled 980–1003), she ruled first as a Regent for her son Abhimanyu and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right
  • Kota Rani (ruled 1338–1339)

Keladi Nayaka dynasty

Mamluk dynasty

Sivaganga estate

Thanjavur Maratha kingdom

Travancore Kingdom

Ullal

Maldives[edit]
  • Damahaar (ruled before 990) - Damahaar, a Ranin (Queen) of the Aadeetta (Sun) Dynasty, is mentioned by al-Idrisi as having reigned over the Maldives at some time before the semi-legendary King Koimala; there are several other mentions by foreign travelers, mainly Arabs, of queens ruling over the Maldives at various times; these are not always named and their reigns cannot be precisely dated
  • Khadijah (ruled 1347–1363, 1364–1374 and 1376–1380)
  • Raadhafathi (ruled 1380)
  • Dhaain (ruled 1385–1388)
  • Kuda Kala Kamanafa’anu (ruled 1607–1609)
  • Amina I (ruled 1753–1754)
  • Amina II (ruled 1757–1759)
Pakistan[edit]

Gilgit

Sindh

Sri Lanka[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Funan Kingdom

Chenla Kingdom

  • Jayadevi (ruled 681–713) - during her rule, she was faulted in leadership which led The Chenla kingdom to break into two individual states, but then it record the period to be female-dominated dynasty with the wide range of female successors, totally driving the entire kingdom
  • Indrani (ruled 8th century) - she ruled with her husband Pushkaraksha
  • Nṛpatendradevī (ruled 8th century)
  • Jayendrabhā (ruled ?–803)
  • Jyeṣṭhāryā (ruled 803–?)

Post-Angkor period

  • Queen Tey (ruled 1687)
  • Ang Mey (ruled 1834–1840) - also known as Ngọc Vân Quận chúa (Lady Ngọc Vân - Vietnamese) or Ksat Trey, she was proclaimed on the death of her father by the Vietnamese faction at court with the title of Mỹ Lâm Quận chúa (Lady Mỹ Lâm - Vietnamese). She was famous as a Vietnamese puppet queen
Indonesia[edit]

Aceh

Bali

Tanette

Kalingga

Majapahit

The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati

Medang

Mengwi

Sonbai Kecil

  • Bi Sonbai (ruled 1672–1717), in western Timor

Kalinyamat Sultanate

Sultanate of Gowa

Samudera Pasai Sultanate

Bone state

Sultanate of Buton

Laos[edit]

Lan Xang

  • Nang Keo Phimpha (ruled 1438) - after her nephew Lan Kham Deng died, she seized control of Lan Xang and the next four kings were under her control. She only reigned for a few months in 1438 at the age of 95; she was then deposed and killed.
Malaysia[edit]

Kelantan

Myanmar[edit]

Hanthawaddy

Philippines[edit]

Namayan and Tondo

Sulu

Thailand[edit]

Hariphunchai

Pattani

  • Ratu Hijau, 'the Green Queen' (ruled 1584–1616)
  • Ratu Biru, 'the Blue Queen' (ruled 1616–1624)
  • Ratu Ungu, 'the Purple Queen' (ruled 1624–1635)
  • Ratu Kuning, 'the Yellow Queen' (ruled 1635–1649/88), controversy surrounds the exact date of the end of her reign
  • Ratu Emas Kelantan (ruled 1670–1698 or 1690–1704) - thought by A. Teeuw & Wyatt to be a king, but claimed by al-Fatani to be a queen, the widow of Raja Bakal and mother of the succeeding queen
  • Ratu Emas Chayam (ruled 1698–1702 or 1704–1707 and 1716–1718)

Lanna

Timor[edit]

Alas

Ainaro

Venilale

Bobonaro

  • Two queens (widows of Dom Lac-Theu and Dom Tai Mau)

Ermera

Luca

Jenilu

Lakekun

Lidak

Sonba'i Kecil

Amfoan

Vietnam[edit]
  • Queen Trưng Trắc (ruled 40–43) - the Trưng sisters (Vietnamese: Hai Bà Trưng; literally: two ladies Trưng) were leaders who rebelled against Chinese rule for three years, and are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam. Her name is Trưng Trắc.
  • Lady Triệu (ruled 248)
  • Empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (ruled 1224–1225)

Champa

West Asia[edit]

Iran[edit]
  • Musa of Parthia (Parthian queen regnant of Iran, ruled 2 BC–4 AD) - she ruled with her son Phraates V
  • Pourandukht (In Persian: Pourandokht, Sassanid queen regnant and Daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled 630 and 631–632)
  • Azarmidokht (Sassanid queen regnant, sister of Pourandukht and daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled 630–631)

Elymais

  • Anzaze (ruled about 82/81 to 75 BC, following dates on the coins), she appears on coins together with king Kamnaskires III; they perhaps ruled together as on the coins she is called βασιλίσσης (the Genitive case of queen, βασίλισσα - basílissa)
  • Ulfan (ruled 2nd century) - she co-ruled with her husband Orodes III

Qutlugh-Khanids

Salghurids

Il Khanate

Khorshidi dynasty

Iraq[edit]

Kish

First Dynasty of Ur

  • Puabi (ruled c. 26th century BC) - there is a theory that she ruled on her own right
Israel[edit]

Judah

Hasmonean dynasty

Herodian dynasty

Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem

Jordan[edit]

Gileadite

Nabatea

Lebanon[edit]

Tripoli

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Qedarite

  • Zabibe (ruled c. 750–735 BC)
  • Samsi (ruled c. 735–710 BC)
  • Yatie (ruled c. 710–695 BC)
  • Te'el-hunu (ruled c. 695–690 BC)
  • Tabua (ruled c. 678–675 BC)
Syria[edit]

Tanukhids

  • Mavia (ruled 375–425) - "The Queen of the Arabs"

Seleucid Empire

Palmyrene Empire

  • Zenobia (ruled 272) - she ruled mostly as regent for her son but reigned shortly under the regnal name Septimia Zenobia Augusta in 272.
Turkey[edit]

Antioch

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Caria

Dardania

Heraclea Pontica

Pontus

Prusias ad Mare

Saltukid dynasty

Trebizond

Yemen[edit]

Sulayhid dynasty

  • Asma bint Shihab (ruled 1047–1087) - she was the co-ruler of Yemen in co-regency with her cousin and spouse, Ali al-Sulayhi, and later her son, Ahmad al-Mukkaram, and daughter-in-law, Arwa al-Sulayhi. Though there were many female monarchs in the Muslim world, Asma bint Shihab and Arwa al-Sulayhi were the only female monarchs in the Arab world to have had the khutba proclaimed in their name in the mosques as sovereigns.
  • Arwa al-Sulayhi (ruled 1067–1138) - she ruled Yemen firstly with her first two husbands and her mother-in-law and then as sole ruler. She was the greatest of the rulers of the Sulayhid Dynasty and was also the first woman to be accorded the prestigious title of hujja in Isma'ili branch of Shi'a Islam, signifying her as the closest living image of God's will in her lifetime.

Central Asia[edit]

Kyrgyzstan[edit]
Uzbekistan[edit]

Europe[edit]

Maria Theresa, Queen regnant of Hungary, Bohemia[15] and the Holy Roman Empress

Andorra[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Austria[edit]

  • Maria Theresa (Archduchess) (ruled 1740–1780) - she was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. In some of the Habsburg dominions (such as Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia and Lodomeria and Galicia), she held the title of queen. By marriage, she was also Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress (all as consort).
Marcomanni[edit]

Bosnia[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Odrysian kingdom[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Cyprus[edit]

Czech lands[edit]

Denmark[edit]

  • Margaret I (ruled 1387–1412) - she was founder of the Kalmar Union, which united the Scandinavian countries for over a century. Margaret is known in Denmark as "Margrethe I" to distinguish her from the current queen. Denmark did not have a tradition of allowing women to rule, so when her son died, she was titled "All-powerful Lady and Mistress (Regent) of the Kingdom of Denmark". She only styled herself Queen of Denmark[citation needed] in 1375, usually referring to herself as "Margaret, by the grace of God, daughter of Valdemar King of Denmark" and "Denmark's rightful heir" when referring to her position in Denmark. Others simply referred to her as the "Lady Queen", without specifying what she was queen of, but not so Pope Boniface IX, who in his letters styled her "our beloved daughter in Christ, Margaret, most excellent queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway"
  • Margaret II (reign 1972–present)

Georgia[edit]

Tamar, King of Kings and Queen of Queens of the Georgians

Greece[edit]

Aeacid dynasty[edit]
Byzantine Empire[edit]
  • Irene of Athens (ruled 797-802) - she normally referred to herself as basilissa (empress), although there are three instances of the title basileus (emperor) being used by her
  • Zoë Porphyrogenita (ruled 1028–1041 and 1042–1050) - she ruled with her consorts Romanos III and Michael IV between 1028 and 1041; she ruled with her sister Theodora and her third husband Constantine IX from 1042 to 1050
  • Theodora Porphyrogenita (ruled 1042–1056) - she ruled from 1042 jointly with her sister Zoe and Zoe's third husband Constantine IX; she ruled from 1055 until her own death as sole monarch.
Epirus[edit]

Hungary[edit]

  • Mary (ruled 1382–1385 and 1386–1395) - she was crowned as King of Hungary to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Sigismund of Luxembourg from 1387
  • Maria Theresa (Queen, "King") (ruled 1740–1780)

Ireland[edit]

Kingdom of Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Naples[edit]
Parma[edit]
Sardinia[edit]
Sicily[edit]
Ostrogoths[edit]
  • Amalasuintha (ruled 534–535) - she ruled first as regent for her son and thereafter as queen regnant in her own right

Luxembourg[edit]

Malta[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

Monaco[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Agder[edit]

Poland[edit]

  • Jadwiga (ruled 1384–1399) - she was crowned as King of Poland to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Władysław II Jagiełło from 1386
  • Anna (ruled 1575–1586) - she was crowned as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania to emphasize that she was a monarch in her own right; she co-ruled with her husband Stephen Báthory

Portugal[edit]

Russia[edit]

Sabir people[edit]
Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus[edit]
Khanate of Qasim[edit]

Spain[edit]

  • Urraca of León and Castile (ruled 1109–1126) - also styled as Empress of all the Spains (totius Hispaniae imperatrix). Her use of the imperial styling was limited, much more so than that of her predecessor and successor (it is possible that the imperial style had connotations too strongly masculine). Urraca did employ instead the title Queen of Spain on several occasions from the very beginning of her reign until the end
  • Petronila of Aragon (ruled 1137–1164)
  • Berenguela of Castile the Great (ruled 1217)
  • Sancha of León (ruled de jure 1230) - she ruled jointly with her sister Dulce. After the death of Sancha's brother, Alfonso IX named his second son, Ferdinand, his heir, bestowing on him the title infante. In 1217, Ferdinand's mother, Berengaria, inherited the Kingdom of Castile, but ceded it to her son. With his heir out of the kingdom and ruling in another place, Alfonso attempted to make his eldest daughters his joint heirs. In the Treaty of Boronal concluded with Portugal in 1219, Alfonso expressly states that if he should die, Portugal should respect the agreement with his daughters.[18] Alfonso also attempted to secure his eldest daughter's rights by marrying Sancha to John of Brienne, the former King of Jerusalem, but his wife Berengaria blocked this action in order to advance her son.[19] After this fiasco, Alfonso declared Sancha and Dulce his heirs, but upon his death on 24 September 1230, the people of León, who had pledged for Ferdinand in 1206, refused to recognise his daughters, and they in turn ceded their rights to his kingdom to their half-brother
  • Dulce of León (ruled de jure 1230) - she ruled jointly with her sister Sancha
  • Isabella I of Castile the Catholic (ruled 1474–1504) - After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganised the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and unburdened the kingdom of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her marriage with Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the political unification of Spain. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects in the Spanish Inquisition, and for supporting and financing Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the New World.
  • Joanna of Castile and Aragon the Mad (ruled 1504–1555) - successor of the previous. After her husband's death she was deemed mentally ill and was confined to a nunnery. Her father, Ferdinand II of Aragon, was regent until his death, when she inherited his kingdom as well and began her nominal co-reign with her son Charles I of Spain, but she had no actual power and her confinement lasted until her death.
  • Isabella II of Spain (ruled 1833–1868)
Navarre[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Christina of Sweden

United Kingdom[edit]

Kingdoms of the Britons[edit]
  • Cartimandua (ruled c. 43–69), queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people in what is now Northern England - she came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome; she is known exclusively from the work of a single Roman historian, Tacitus, though she appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain
  • Boudica (ruled c. 60–61), queen of the Brythonic Celtic Iceni, people of Norfolk, in Eastern Britain - in 61 AD, led a major uprising of the tribes against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms[edit]
Kingdom of England[edit]
  • Matilda (ruled 1141) - she was England's first de facto female ruler, holding the title of Lady of the English (she planned to assume the title of queen upon her coronation). She was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, and acknowledged as such by the barons; however, upon the death of her father in 1135, Matilda's rival and cousin Stephen of Blois usurped the throne. The Anarchy followed, with Matilda's being a de facto ruler for a few months in 1141, but she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically)
  • Jane (ruled 1553, disputed) - her cousin Edward VI of England nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will and excluded his half sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. However, this was disputed following Edward's death, since parliament had not ratified his action and Jane was ‘queen’ for only nine days (10–19 July) before Edward's half-sister, Mary, was proclaimed Queen. Jane is nicknamed The Nine Days' Queen
  • Mary I (ruled 1553–1558)
  • Elizabeth I (ruled 1558–1603)
Kingdom of Scotland[edit]
  • Margaret, Maid of Norway (ruled 1286–1290) She was daughter of Eric II of Norway and Margaret of Scotland and was named "domina and right heir" of the Kingdom of Scotland by her grandfather, Alexander III. Her death, at the age of seven, while en route to Scotland sparked off the disputed succession which led to the Wars of Scottish Independence. As Margaret was never crowned or otherwise inaugurated, and never set foot on what was then Scottish soil during her lifetime, there is some doubt about whether she should be regarded as a Queen of Scots; this could ultimately be a matter of interpretation. Most lists of the monarchs of Scotland do include her, but a few do not.
  • Mary I (ruled 1542–1567) - she was executed in England in 1587
Kingdoms of England and Scotland / Kingdom of Great Britain[edit]
United Kingdom[edit]

Oceania[edit]

American Samoa[edit]

Tui Manuʻa Matelita.

Australia[edit]

French Polynesia[edit]

Bora Bora[edit]
Huahine[edit]
Raiatea[edit]
Rapa Iti[edit]
Rimatara[edit]
Tahiti[edit]
  • Purea (ruled 18th century), queen of the Teva clan on the southern part of the island before unification
  • Pōmare IV (ruled 1827–1877)

Fiji[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

  • Kingdom
    • Liliʻuokalani (ruled 1891–1893 and claimed status as queen until her death in 1917) - was one of many queens of Hawaii; however, she was the only queen regnant of the modern Kingdom of Hawaii established by Kamehameha I in the late eighteenth century

New Zealand[edit]

Rarotonga[edit]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Solomon Islands[edit]

Tonga[edit]

Tuvalu[edit]

Uvea (Wallis)[edit]

Queen regents[edit]

Africa[edit]

Ashanti Empire[edit]

  • Yaa Asantewaa (c. 1840–1921) (regent), queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti Empire (1894-1902)

Axum Empire[edit]

  • Sofya (c. 330), queen mother of Ezana who ruled on his behalf during his infancy.

Dahomey[edit]

  • Hangbe (regent) ruler of Dahomey 1716-1718 between the death of Akaba and the rule of Agaja

Egypt[edit]

Ancient Egypt

Fatimid Caliphate

  • Sitt al-Mulk - regent from 1021 to 1023 during the reign of her nephew Ali az-Zahir.
  • Rasad - While never formally regent, she wielded a great deal of power during the reign of her son Al-Mustansir Billah and was the effective head of state from 1044 to 1062.

Ayyubid Sultanate

Ethiopia[edit]

Kongo Kingdom[edit]

Mwali[edit]

  • Ravao (1840s) - regent during the early years of the reign of her daughter Djoumbé Fatima.[20]

Sultanate of Tuggurt[edit]

Batlokwa[edit]

  • Mmanthatisi (1813-1824) - regent on behalf of her son Sekonyela.

America[edit]

Yaxchilan[edit]

Asia[edit]

Abbasid Caliphate[edit]

Bhopal State[edit]

China[edit]

Eastern Zhou

Han Dynasty

Jin dynasty (266–420)

Northern Wei

Tang dynasty

  • Wu Zetian - she ruled first de facto co-ruler with her husband Emperor Gaozong until the end of his reign, and then as regent and thereafter as empress regnant in her own right
  • Empress Wei (Tang dynasty)

Liao dynasty

Northern Liao

Qara Khitai

Western Xia

Northern Song (960–1127)

Southern Song Dynasty

Yuan dynasty

Ming dynasty

Qing dynasty

India[edit]

Garhwal Kingdom[edit]
Gond[edit]
Maratha Empire[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Korea[edit]

Goguryeo[edit]
Silla[edit]
Goryeo[edit]
Joseon[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Chagatai Khanate[edit]
Golden Horde[edit]
Kara-Khitan Khanate[edit]
Kashmir[edit]
  • Didda (regent) 958-980 - she ruled first as a regent for her son and thereafter as sole ruler in her own right
Kazan Khanate[edit]

Neo-Assyrian Empire[edit]

Palmyrene Empire[edit]

Ryukyu Kingdom[edit]

Thailand[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Europe[edit]

Armenia[edit]

England[edit]

France[edit]

Franks[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Illyrian Kingdom[edit]

  • Teuta (regent) 231–227 BC
  • Etuta (regent) 169-168 BC
  • Charel (regent) 522-533 BC

Khazar[edit]

Kievan Rus'[edit]

  • Olga (regent) 945-962

Netherlands[edit]

  • Emma (regent) 1890-1898

Lombards[edit]

Ostrogoths[edit]

Poland

Portugal[edit]

Russia[edit]

Hedwig Eleanor of Sweden

Sarmatians[edit]

  • Amage (ruled fl. 2nd-century)

Sweden[edit]

Roman Empire and immediate successors[edit]

  • Agrippina the Younger (regent) 49 - 56, as Augusta of the Roman Empire, ruled during the time of her husband and son.
  • Julia Domna (regent) 197 - 217, as Augusta of the Roman Empire, ruled during the time of her husband and sons and she was the first woman in the Severan dynasty to rule.
  • Julia Maesa (regent) 218 - 224, The Severan dynasty was dominated by powerful women, one of which was Maesa. Politically able and ruthless, she contended for political power after her sister's suicide and Afterwards she held power until she died in Rome.
  • Julia Soaemias (regent) 218 - 222, After his son came to power, he came to power with his mother and She attended meetings of the senate, and even held a "Women's Senate" deciding on matters of fashion and protocol. She was honored with various titles, including 'Augusta, mater Augusti' (Augusta, mother of Augustus) and 'Mater castorum et senatus et totius domus divinae' (Mother of camp and the senate and the divine house).
  • Julia Avita Mamaea (regent) 222 - 235, She was the mother of Roman Emperor Alexander Severus and served as regent of Rome during his minority, de facto during his reign. also Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort).
  • Ulpia Severina (regent) 275 - there is considerable numismatic evidence for Ulpia Severina ruling in her own right between the death of Aurelian and the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[21] Sources mention an interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus, and some of Ulpia's coins appear to have been minted after Aurelian's death.[22] As such she may have been the only woman to rule over the whole Roman Empire in her own power.
Bithynia[edit]
Byzantine Empire[edit]
Latin Empire[edit]

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Legendary & Mythological Queens[edit]

Chile[edit]

China[edit]

Congo[edit]

Kuba Kingdom[edit]

  • Lobamba
  • Go Kadi
  • Gokare

Czech[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

Claimed dates follow the Ethiopian calendar

  • Borsa (4321–4254 BC)
  • Elyouka (3776–3731 BC)
  • Nehasset Nais (2434–2404 BC)
  • Kasiyope (1890–1871 BC) – Originated from Greek mythology
  • Mumazes (1675–1671 BC)
  • Aruas (1671 BC)
  • Helena (1358–1347 BC)
  • Makeda (1013–982 BC) – The Biblical queen of Sheba in Ethiopian tradition
  • Nicauta Kandake (740–730 BC)
  • Hadina (372–362 BC)
  • Nikawla Kandake (342–332 BC)
  • Akawsis Kandake (325–315 BC)
  • Nikosis Kandake (242–232 BC)
  • Awsena (99–88 BC)
  • Nicotnis Kandake (35–25 BC)
  • Garsemot Kandake (40–50 AD)
  • Wakana (230 AD)
  • Ahywa Sofya (299–332 AD) – Likely based on Sofya of Axum
  • Adhana I (369–374 AD)
  • Adhana II (412–418 AD)

Gideons Dynasty[edit]

  • Gudit, (ruled c. 960 – c. 1000)

Sidama people[edit]

Greece[edit]

Amazons[edit]

  • Otrera, the daughter of Eurus (the east wind)
  • Hippolyta, the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle
  • Penthesilea, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Antianara, the daughter of Ares and Otrera and the sister of Hippolyta, Antiope and Melanippe
  • Eurypyle
  • Lampedo
  • Marpesia

India[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Japan[edit]

Korea[edit]

Libya[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

  • Alan Gua, a mythical figure from the Secret History of the Mongols

Myanmar[edit]

Norway[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Poland[edit]

Somalia[edit]

Sudan[edit]

Tunisia[edit]

  • Dido (ruled 814 – c. 760 BC) - also known as Alyssa. Founder of Carthage, according to tradition

Turkey[edit]

Turkmenistan[edit]

  • Zarinaea legendary Sacae woman ruler, the sister of Cyraedus, and the wife of Marmares, ruler of the Parthians

United Kingdom[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Yemen[edit]

Titular & Current constituent Queens[edit]

Botswana[edit]

Brazil[edit]

  • Isabel, titular empress regnant of Brazil

Chile and Argentina[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Italy[edit]

Korea[edit]

Mexico[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Panama and Costa Rica[edit]

Spain[edit]

Chieftainess[edit]

Burundi[edit]

Cameroon[edit]

Fiji[edit]

Haiti and Dominican Republic[edit]

  • Anacaona, Cacica of Quisqueya
  • Iguanamá, Cacica of Hispaniola, also known as Isabel de Iguanamá (ruled c. 1514)[25]

Israel[edit]

Malawi[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Rarotonga[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Xhosa[edit]

United States and Canada[edit]

Crow tribe[edit]

Giluts'aaw[edit]

  • Victoria Young

Pamunkey[edit]

Puerto Rico[edit]

  • Doña Ines, mother of Caciques Agueybaná and Agüeybaná II
  • Doña María, daughter of Cacique Bagnamanay
  • Yuisa, Cacica in the region near Loíza, Puerto Rico

Sakonnet[edit]

Seneca tribe[edit]

Female Rulers of Feudal states & Substates[edit]

Asia[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Principality of Ruhuna[edit]

Europe[edit]

Albania[edit]

Duchy of Durazzo[edit]
Principality of Albania[edit]
Principality of Valona[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Duchy of Brabant[edit]

France[edit]

Duchy of Aquitaine[edit]
Counts and Dukes of Angoulême[edit]

Germany[edit]

County of Veldenz[edit]
  • Agnes, Countess of Veldenz, ruled 1260–1277
Duchy of Bar[edit]

Female Rulers of Crown Land & Personal Union[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Part of the Kingdom of Denmark

Part of the Swedish Empire

Part of the Russian Empire

  • Catherine I (ruled 8 February 1725 – 17 May 1727)
  • Anna (ruled 13 February 1730 – 28 October 1740)
  • Elizabeth (ruled 6 December 1741 – 5 January 1762)
  • Catherine II (ruled 9 July 1762 – 6 November 1796)

Finland[edit]

Part of the Kingdom of Sweden

Iceland[edit]

Possession of Norway

Latvia[edit]

Swedish Livonia[edit]

Romania[edit]

Principality of Transylvania[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

Part of the Kingdom of Hungary

  • Mary (ruled 1382–1385 and 1386–1395)
  • Maria Theresa (Queen, "King") (ruled 1740–1780)

Slovenia[edit]

Duchy of Carniola[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Guinea Bissau Substates". www.guide2womenleaders.com.
  2. ^ a b Basil Davidson (2014). West Africa Before the Colonial Era: A History to 1850. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-317-88265-7.
  3. ^ a b Amirell, Stefan (2015). "Female Rule in the Indian Ocean World (1300-1900)". Journal of World History. 26 (3): 443–489. doi:10.1353/jwh.2015.0023. JSTOR 43901772. S2CID 141655723.
  4. ^ Ben, Cahoon (ed.). "Madagascar Traditional States". World Statesmen.
  5. ^ Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (2011). "The divine kingship of the Shilluk of the Nilotic Sudan". HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory. 1: 407–422. doi:10.14318/hau1.1.016. S2CID 162247139.
  6. ^ Book of Sui, vol. 83
  7. ^ a b Fan, Wenlan (1994). Zhongguo tong shi. Vol. 4. ISBN 978-7-010-02029-7.
  8. ^ a b c d Old Book of Tang, vol. 197
  9. ^ History of Ming, vol. 329
  10. ^ Jyotsna Kamat (2010-05-07). "Queen of Gersoppa: Chennabhairadevi, Brave Ruler of Gersoppa (1552-1606 C.E)". Kamatpotporri. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  11. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan; Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich; Unesco (2003-01-01). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. p. 238. ISBN 978-92-3-103876-1.
  12. ^ Khan, Shah Ra'is (1987). Shah Ra'is Khan ki Tarikh-i Gilgit (in Urdu).
  13. ^ O'Connor, Sue; McWilliam, Andrew; Brockwell, Sally (2020-09-07). Forts and Fortification in Wallacea: Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Investigations. ANU Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-76046-389-2.
  14. ^ Syarifuddin, Ferry; Sakti, Ali (2021-02-08). Praktik Ekonomi dan Keuangan Syariah oleh Kerajaan Islam di Indonesia - Rajawali Pers (in Indonesian). PT. RajaGrafindo Persada. p. 83.
  15. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-29.
  16. ^ Claus Krag. "Åsa Haraldsdatter, Dronning". Norsk biografisk leksikon.
  17. ^ Nicholson, Oliver (19 April 2018). The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity. p. 1316. ISBN 978-0192562463.
  18. ^ Yáñez Neira, 54.
  19. ^ Salvador Martínez, 32–33.
  20. ^ Ibrahime, Mahmoud: Djoumbé Fatima: Une reine comorienne face aux visées coloniales de la marine française. Tarehi - Revue d'Histoire et d'Archéologie 2, 10–17, 2001.
  21. ^ Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4.
  22. ^ Körner, Christian (December 23, 2008). "Aurelian (A.D. 270-275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  23. ^ Theodora in the Encyclopædia Britannica
  24. ^ Eudocia Macrembolitissa in the Encyclopædia Britannica
  25. ^ Ochoa, Margarita R.; Guengerich, Sara V. (11 March 2021). Cacicas: The Indigenous Women Leaders of Spanish America, 1492–1825. p. 4. ISBN 9780806169996.

Bibliography[edit]

  • L. Pierotti Cei, Madonna Costanza, Regina di Sicilia e d'Aragona, Mondadori, Milan 1995.
  • S. Runciman, I Vespri siciliani, Rizzoli, Milan 1975.

External links[edit]