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List of heads of state of Libya Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_heads_of_state_of_Libya

Chairman of the Presidential Council of the State of Libya
رئيس المجلس الرئاسي دولة ليبيا
Seal of the Government of National Unity (Libya).svg
Seal of the Government of National Unity
Мухаммад Аль-Манфи (51120607759).jpg
Incumbent
Mohamed al-Menfi

since 15 March 2021
Government of National Unity
StyleMr. Chairman
His Excellency
StatusHead of state
Member ofPresidential Council
SeatTripoli, Libya
DeputyVice Chairman of the Presidential Council

This article lists the heads of state of Libya since the country's independence in 1951.

Libya is in a tumultuous state since the start of the Arab Spring-related Libyan Crisis in 2011; the crisis resulted in the collapse of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the killing of Muammar Gaddafi, amidst the First Civil War and the foreign military intervention.[1][2][3] The crisis was deepened by the factional violence in the aftermath of the First Civil War, resulting in the outbreak of the Second Civil War in 2014.[4] The control over the country is currently split between the House of Representatives (HoR) in Tobruk and the Government of National Unity (GNU) in Tripoli and their respective supporters, as well as various jihadist groups and tribal elements controlling parts of the country.[5][6]

Heads of state of Libya (1951–present)[edit]

Kingdom of Libya (1951–1969)[edit]

No. Name Portrait Lifespan Reign Dynasty
Reign start Reign end Duration
1 Idris I King Idris I of Libya.png 1889–1983 24 December 1951 1 September 1969 17 years, 251 days Senussi
The first and only King of Libya. Deposed in the 1969 coup d'état.[7]

Libya under Gaddafi (1969–2011)[edit]

Libyan Arab Republic (1969–1977)[edit]

No. Name Portrait Lifespan Term of office Political affiliation
Took office Left office Time in office
2 Muammar Gaddafi Moamer el Gadafi (cropped).jpg 1942–2011 1 September 1969 2 March 1977 7 years, 182 days Military /
Arab Socialist Union
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). Gaddafi dissolved the RCC on 2 March 1977, after the General People's Congress (GPC) adopted the Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People.[8]

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–2011)[edit]

(2) Muammar Gaddafi Moamer el Gadafi (cropped).jpg 1942–2011 2 March 1977 2 March 1979 2 years Military /
Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC. Gaddafi renounced all government functions on 2 March 1979. However, as leader of the revolution (officially "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution"), he retained ultimate control over Libya until he was deposed and killed during the First Civil War in 2011.[9][10][11]
3 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi Abdul Ati al-Obeidi (cropped).jpg born 1939 2 March 1979 7 January 1981 1 year, 311 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC. Previously served as Secretary-General of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister), from 1977 to 1979.
4 Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab No image.svg born 1940 7 January 1981 15 February 1984 3 years, 39 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC. Afterwards served as Secretary-General of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister), from 1984 to 1986.
5 Mifta al-Usta Umar No image.svg 1935–2010 15 February 1984 7 October 1990 6 years, 234 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC. Served at the time of the 1986 United States bombing (Operation El Dorado Canyon).
6 Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa No image.svg 1933–2016 7 October 1990 18 January 1992 1 year, 103 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC.
7 Muhammad az-Zanati Shikh azanati.JPG born 1944 18 January 1992 3 March 2008 16 years, 45 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC.
8 Miftah Muhammed K'eba No image.svg born 1947 3 March 2008 5 March 2009 1 year, 2 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC.
9 Imbarek Shamekh No image.svg born 1952 5 March 2009[12] 26 January 2010 327 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC. Previously served as Secretary-General of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister), from 2000 to 2003.
10 Mohamed Abu al-Qasim al-Zwai No image.svg born 1952 26 January 2010[13] 23 August 2011 1 year, 209 days Independent
(Islamic socialist)
Secretary-General of the GPC. Served at the time of the First Civil War and the concurrent foreign military intervention. Deposed during the Battle of Tripoli.

Transitional period (2011–present)[edit]

11 Mustafa Abdul Jalil Mustafa Abdul Jalil (5713061984).jpg born 1952 5 March 2011 8 August 2012 1 year, 156 days Independent
Chairman of the National Transitional Council (NTC). In rebellion to 23 August 2011, based in Benghazi during this period.
Mohammed Ali Salim No image.svg born 1935 8 August 2012 9 August 2012 1 day Independent
Acting President of the General National Congress (GNC). Symbolic head of state for the handover of power from the NTC.
12 Mohammed Magariaf Megariaf cropped GNC.jpg born 1940 9 August 2012 28 May 2013 292 days National Front Party
President of the GNC. Resigned to comply with the Political Isolation Law passed by the GNC on 14 May 2013.
Giuma Ahmed Atigha Giuma Ahmed Atigha (cropped).JPG born 1950 28 May 2013 25 June 2013 28 days Independent
Acting President of the GNC.
13 Nouri Abusahmain Nouri Abusahmain cropped.jpg born 1956 25 June 2013 5 April 2016 2 years, 285 days Independent
President of the GNC. In rebellion, based in Tripoli. Internationally recognized until 4 August 2014.
Following the 2014 parliamentary election, the government was split between the newly-elected House of Representatives (HoR) and the outgoing GNC, resulting in the Second Civil War. The 2014 elections were declared invalid by the Supreme Court in November 2014.[14]
Abu Bakr Baira Abubakr Buera Ban Ki-Moon (cropped).JPG born 1941 4 August 2014 5 August 2014 1 day Independent
Acting President of the House of Representatives (HoR). Symbolic head of state for the handover of power from the GNC.
14 Aguila Saleh Issa Aguila Salah Issa - 2020 (cropped).jpg born 1944 5 August 2014 15 March 2021 6 years, 222 days Independent
President of the HoR. In rebellion, based in Tobruk. Internationally recognized until 12 March 2016.
Following the inauguration of the Presidential Council and the Government of National Accord (GNA), the government remained split between the HoR and the National Salvation Government (NSG), recreated after the 2016 coup d'état attempt. Afterwards, the High Council of the Revolution was created as well. However, the High Council of State (HCS), based in Tripoli, recognized the GNA.
15 Fayez al-Sarraj Fayez al-Sarraj in Washington - 2017 (38751877521) (cropped).jpg born 1960 30 March 2016 15 March 2021 4 years, 350 days Independent
Chairman of the Presidential Council. Simultaneously served as Prime Minister of the Government of National Accord (GNA). Internationally recognized, based in Tripoli.
16 Mohamed al-Menfi Мухаммад Аль-Манфи (51120607759).jpg born 1976 15 March 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 157 days Independent
Chairman of the Presidential Council. Internationally recognized, based in Tripoli.

Timeline[edit]

Mohamed al-MenfiFayez al-SarrajAguila Saleh IssaAbu Bakr BairaNouri AbusahmainGiuma Ahmed AtighaMohammed MagariafMohammed Ali SalimMustafa Abdul JalilMohamed Abu al-Qasim al-ZwaiImbarek ShamekhMiftah Muhammed K'ebaMuhammad az-ZanatiAbdul Razzaq as-SawsaMifta al-Usta UmarMuhammad az-Zaruq RajabAbdul Ati al-ObeidiMuammar GaddafiLibyan Revolutionary Command CouncilIdris of Libya

Incoming election[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Libya mired in chaos 10 years after Arab Spring". Agence France-Presse. France 24. 10 February 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link) CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "10 years since Kadhafi death, stability still eludes Libya". Agence France-Presse. France 24. 19 October 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link) CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Feature: Libyans struggling in poverty, chaos 10 years after NATO intervention". Xinhua News Agency. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  4. ^ "Libya's Second Civil War: How did it come to this?". Conflict News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
    National Post View (24 February 2015). "National Post View: Stabilizing Libya may be the best way to keep Europe safe". National Post. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  5. ^ Pelham, Nicolas (February 2015). "Libya Against Itself". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  6. ^ Fadel, L. "Libya's Crisis: A Shattered Airport, Two Parliaments, Many Factions". Archived 2015-04-26 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "KING IDRIS, OUSTED IN '69 BY QADDAFI, DIES IN CAIRO". The New York Times. AP. 26 May 1983. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  8. ^ "Libya Reorganizes Government". The New York Times. 4 March 1977. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  9. ^ Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (19 March 2011). "Libyan minister claims Gaddafi is powerless and the ceasefire is 'solid'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  10. ^ "Gaddafi: Libya dignity under attack". Al Jazeera. 2 March 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi has said that he is not a president and so cannot resign his position, and that power is in the hands of the people, during a televised public rally in the capital, Tripoli.
  11. ^ Neil MacFarquhar (20 October 2011). "An Erratic Leader, Brutal and Defiant to the End". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  12. ^ "Limited Reshuffle in GP Congress, GP Committee". The Tripoli Post. 6 March 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Friend of Gaddafi named to head Libyan parliament". afran.ir. 27 January 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  14. ^ "Libya court 'invalidates' parliament". 6 November 2014. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018 – via BBC.

External links[edit]