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List of countries by Human Development Index Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index

World map
World map representing Human Development Index categories (based on 2021 data, published in 2022)
  •   Very high (≥ 0.800)
  •   High (0.700–0.799)
  •   Medium (0.550–0.699)
  •   Low (≤ 0.549)
  •   Data unavailable
World map
World map of countries or territories by Human Development Index scores in increments of 0.050 (based on 2021 data, published in 2022)
  •   ≥ 0.950
  •   0.900–0.950
  •   0.850–0.899
  •   0.800–0.849
  •   0.750–0.799
  •   0.700–0.749
  •   0.650–0.699
  •   0.600–0.649
  •   0.550–0.599
  •   0.500–0.549
  •   0.450–0.499
  •   0.400–0.449
  •   ≤ 0.399
  •   Data unavailable

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) compiles the Human Development Index (HDI) of 191 nations in the annual Human Development Report. The index considers the health, education and income in a given country to provide a measure of human development which is comparable between countries and over time.[1][2]

The HDI is the most widely used indicator of human development and changed how people view the concept.[3][4] However, several aspects of the index have received criticism. Some scholars have criticized how the factors are weighed, in particular how an additional year of life expectancy is valued differently between countries;[4][5] and the limited factors it considers, noting the omission of factors such as the levels of distributional and gender inequality.[6][7] In response to the former, the UNDP introduced the inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) in its 2010 report, and in response to the latter the Gender Development Index (GDI) was introduced in the 1995 report.[8][9] Others have criticized the perceived oversimplification of using a single number per country.[10][11] To reflect developmental differences within countries, a subnational HDI (SHDI) featuring data for more than 1,600 regions was introduced in 2018 by the Global Data Lab at Radboud University in the Netherlands.[11] In 2020, the UNDP introduced another index, the planetary pressures–adjusted Human Development Index (PHDI), which decreases the scores of countries with a higher ecological footprint.[12]

Dimensions and indicators[edit]

The HDI was first published in 1990 with the goal of being a more comprehensive measure of human development than purely economic measures such as gross domestic product. The index incorporates three dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, knowledge, and decent living standards. Various indicators are used to quantify how countries perform on each dimension. The indicators used in the 2022 report were life expectancy at birth; expected years of schooling for children; mean years of schooling for adults; and gross national income per capita. The indicators are used to create a health index, an education index and an income index, each with a value between 0 and 1. The geometric mean of the three indices—that is, the cube root of the product of the indices—is the human development index. A value above 0.800 is classified as very high, between 0.700 and 0.799 as high, 0.550 to 0.699 as medium, and below 0.550 as low.[1][13][14]

The data used to calculate HDI comes mostly from United Nations agencies and international institutions, such as United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Rarely, when one of the indicators is missing, cross-country regression models are used. Due to improved data and methodology updates, HDI values are not comparable across human development reports; instead, each report recalculates the HDI for some previous years.[14][15]

HDI Dimensions and Indicators[16]
Dimensions Indicators Dimension index HDI
Long and healthy life
  • Life expectancy at birth
  • Life expectancy index Human Development Index
    Knowledge
  • Expected years of schooling
  • Mean years of schooling
  • Education index
    A decent standard of living
  • GNI per capita (PPP $)
  • GNI index

    Nations[edit]

    World map
    Average annual HDI growth from 2010 to 2021 published in 2022
    •   ≥ 1.4%
    •   1.2%…1.4%
    •   1%…1.2%
    •   0.8%…1%
    •   0.6%…0.8%
    •   0.4%…0.6%
    •   0.2%…0.4%
    •   0%…0.2%
    •   −0.5%…0%
    •   −1%…−0.5%
    •   < −1%
    •   No data

    The Human Development Report includes all 193 United Nations member states, as well as the State of Palestine and Hong Kong SAR. The Human Development Index is however not calculated for 4 UN member states, namely DPR Korea (North Korea), Monaco, Nauru, and Somalia. Some components of the index may be calculated for these countries though. In total, the HDI is available for 191 nations.[2]

    Global Data Lab also provides data on the HDI of Somalia, putting it at 0.361 (2019), the lowest in the world, though data for Syria is unavailable.[17]

    Countries ranked from 1 to 66 in the year 2019 are considered to be of very high HDI, ranked 67 to 119 are considered to be of high HDI, ranked 120 to 156 are considered to be of medium HDI, and ranked 157 to 189 are considered to be of low HDI.[18][14]

    Table of countries by HDI
    Rank Nation HDI
    2021 data (2022 report)​[2] Change since 2015​[19] 2021 data (2022 report)​[2] Average annual growth (2010–2021)​[19]
    1 Steady   Switzerland 0.962 Increase 0.19%
    2 Steady  Norway 0.961 Increase 0.19%
    3 Steady  Iceland 0.959 Increase 0.56%
    4 Increase (3)  Hong Kong 0.952 Increase 0.44%
    5 Increase (3)  Australia 0.951 Increase 0.27%
    6 Steady  Denmark 0.948 Increase 0.34%
    7 Decrease (2)  Sweden 0.947 Increase 0.36%
    8 Increase (6)  Ireland 0.945 Increase 0.40%
    9 Decrease (5)  Germany 0.942 Increase 0.16%
    10 Decrease (1)  Netherlands 0.941 Increase 0.24%
    11 Steady  Finland 0.940 Increase 0.29%
    12 Decrease (1)  Singapore 0.939 Increase 0.29%
    13 Increase (2)  Belgium 0.937 Increase 0.25%
    13 Decrease (3)  New Zealand 0.937 Increase 0.15%
    15 Decrease (2)  Canada 0.936 Increase 0.25%
    16 Decrease (1)  Liechtenstein 0.935 Increase 0.22%
    17 Increase (3)  Luxembourg 0.930 Increase 0.18%
    18 Decrease (3)  United Kingdom 0.929 Increase 0.17%
    19 Steady  Japan 0.925 Increase 0.27%
    19 Increase (3)  South Korea 0.925 Increase 0.35%
    21 Decrease (3)  United States 0.921 Increase 0.10%
    22 Steady  Israel 0.919 Increase 0.25%
    23 Increase (4)  Malta 0.918 Increase 0.58%
    23 Increase (1)  Slovenia 0.918 Increase 0.28%
    25 Decrease (4)  Austria 0.916 Increase 0.14%
    26 Increase (9)  United Arab Emirates 0.911 Increase 0.80%
    27 Steady  Spain 0.905 Increase 0.38%
    28 Decrease (3)  France 0.903 Increase 0.27%
    29 Increase (3)  Cyprus 0.896 Increase 0.41%
    30 Decrease (1)  Italy 0.895 Increase 0.13%
    31 Decrease (2)  Estonia 0.890 Increase 0.30%
    32 Decrease (6)  Czechia 0.889 Increase 0.20%
    33 Decrease (2)  Greece 0.887 Increase 0.19%
    34 Decrease (1)  Poland 0.876 Increase 0.37%
    35 Increase (3)  Bahrain 0.875 Increase 0.73%
    35 Increase (1)  Lithuania 0.875 Increase 0.35%
    35 Increase (2)  Saudi Arabia 0.875 Increase 0.64%
    38 Increase (2)  Portugal 0.866 Increase 0.40%
    39 Increase (1)  Latvia 0.863 Increase 0.42%
    40 Decrease (6)  Andorra 0.858 Increase 0.11%
    40 Increase (5)  Croatia 0.858 Increase 0.40%
    42 Increase (1)  Chile 0.855 Increase 0.46%
    42 Increase (1)  Qatar 0.855 Increase 0.23%
    44 NA[a]  San Marino 0.853 NA[a]
    45 Decrease (5)  Slovakia 0.848 Increase 0.09%
    46 Increase (1)  Hungary 0.846 Increase 0.20%
    47 Decrease (4)  Argentina 0.842 Increase 0.09%
    48 Increase (6)  Turkey 0.838 Increase 1.03%
    49 Increase (3)  Montenegro 0.832 Increase 0.27%
    50 Decrease (1)  Kuwait 0.831 Increase 0.20%
    51 Decrease (3)  Brunei 0.829 Increase 0.01%
    52 Decrease (2)  Russia 0.822 Increase 0.29%
    53 Decrease (4)  Romania 0.821 Increase 0.16%
    54 Decrease (3)  Oman 0.816 Increase 0.32%
    55 Decrease (2)  Bahamas 0.812 Increase 0.00%
    56 Increase (4)  Kazakhstan 0.811 Increase 0.51%
    57 Decrease (2)  Trinidad and Tobago 0.810 Increase 0.23%
    58 Increase (4)  Costa Rica 0.809 Increase 0.43%
    58 Steady  Uruguay 0.809 Increase 0.25%
    60 Decrease (3)  Belarus 0.808 Increase 0.21%
    61 Steady  Panama 0.805 Increase 0.37%
    62 Increase (1)  Malaysia 0.803 Increase 0.39%
    63 Increase (7)  Georgia 0.802 Increase 0.50%
    63 Increase (2)  Mauritius 0.802 Increase 0.55%
    63 Increase (4)  Serbia 0.802 Increase 0.41%
    66 Increase (6)  Thailand 0.800 Increase 0.75%
    67 Decrease (2)  Albania 0.796 Increase 0.49%
    68 Decrease (9)  Bulgaria 0.795 Increase 0.06%
    68 Increase (2)  Grenada 0.795 Increase 0.15%
    70 Decrease (2)  Barbados 0.790 Increase 0.02%
    71 Decrease (3)  Antigua and Barbuda 0.788 Decrease 0.02%
    72 Decrease (8)  Seychelles 0.785 Increase 0.10%
    73 Increase (9)  Sri Lanka 0.782 Increase 0.54%
    74 Increase (10)  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.780 Increase 0.67%
    75 Increase (2)  Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.777 Increase 0.21%
    76 Decrease (2)  Iran 0.774 Increase 0.35%
    77 Decrease (2)  Ukraine 0.773 Increase 0.11%
    78 Increase (5)  North Macedonia 0.770 Increase 0.39%
    79 Increase (19)  China 0.768 Increase 0.97%
    80 Increase (16)  Dominican Republic 0.767 Increase 0.73%
    80 Increase (9)  Moldova 0.767 Increase 0.45%
    80 Decrease (7)  Palau 0.767 Decrease 0.07%
    83 Decrease (7)  Cuba 0.764 Decrease 0.19%
    84 Increase (1)  Peru 0.762 Increase 0.45%
    85 Decrease (5)  Armenia 0.759 Increase 0.16%
    86 Decrease (8)  Mexico 0.758 Increase 0.15%
    87 Increase (1)  Brazil 0.754 Increase 0.38%
    88 Decrease (1)  Colombia 0.752 Increase 0.32%
    89 Decrease (4)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.751 Increase 0.21%
    90 Increase (6)  Maldives 0.747 Increase 0.75%
    91 Increase (2)  Algeria 0.745 Increase 0.30%
    91 Decrease (1)  Azerbaijan 0.745 Increase 0.22%
    91 Increase (10)  Tonga 0.745 Increase 0.40%
    91 Increase (2)  Turkmenistan 0.745 Increase 0.43%
    95 Decrease (14)  Ecuador 0.740 Increase 0.05%
    96 Increase (4)  Mongolia 0.739 Increase 0.48%
    97 Increase (13)  Egypt 0.731 Increase 0.73%
    97 Increase (1)  Tunisia 0.731 Increase 0.14%
    99 Increase (3)  Fiji 0.730 Increase 0.20%
    99 Decrease (7)  Suriname 0.730 Increase 0.09%
    101 Increase (11)  Uzbekistan 0.727 Increase 0.70%
    102 Increase (11)  Dominica 0.720 Increase 0.11%
    102 Increase (2)  Jordan 0.720 Decrease 0.06%
    104 Increase (10)  Libya 0.718 Decrease 0.26%
    105 Decrease (2)  Paraguay 0.717 Increase 0.42%
    106 Increase (2)  Palestine 0.715 Increase 0.36%
    106 Decrease (11)  Saint Lucia 0.715 Decrease 0.16%
    108 Increase (12)  Guyana 0.714 Increase 0.77%
    109 Decrease (4)  South Africa 0.713 Increase 0.50%
    110 Decrease (3)  Jamaica 0.709 Increase 0.06%
    111 Decrease (6)  Samoa 0.707 Decrease 0.08%
    112 Increase (2)  Gabon 0.706 Increase 0.56%
    112 Decrease (21)  Lebanon 0.706 Decrease 0.79%
    114 Increase (3)  Indonesia 0.705 Increase 0.55%
    115 Increase (5)  Vietnam 0.703 Increase 0.53%
    116 Steady  Philippines 0.699 Increase 0.33%
    117 Decrease (6)  Botswana 0.693 Increase 0.44%
    118 Steady  Bolivia 0.692 Increase 0.40%
    118 Steady  Kyrgyzstan 0.692 Increase 0.38%
    120 Decrease (41)  Venezuela 0.691 Decrease 0.80%
    121 Increase (1)  Iraq 0.686 Increase 0.63%
    122 Increase (3)  Tajikistan 0.685 Increase 0.68%
    123 Decrease (14)  Belize 0.683 Decrease 0.31%
    123 Increase (3)  Morocco 0.683 Increase 1.14%
    125 Decrease (2)  El Salvador 0.675 Increase 0.22%
    126 Increase (1)  Nicaragua 0.667 Increase 0.76%
    127 Increase (6)  Bhutan 0.666 Increase 1.25%
    128 Decrease (4)  Cape Verde 0.662 Increase 0.25%
    129 Increase (11)  Bangladesh 0.661 Increase 1.64%
    130 Decrease (2)  Tuvalu 0.641 Increase 0.36%
    131 Decrease (1)  Marshall Islands 0.639 NA[a]
    132 Decrease (1)  India 0.633 Increase 0.88%
    133 Increase (5)  Ghana 0.632 Increase 0.88%
    134 Steady  Micronesia 0.628 Increase 0.04%
    135 Decrease (6)  Guatemala 0.627 Increase 0.33%
    136 Decrease (1)  Kiribati 0.624 Increase 0.53%
    137 Steady  Honduras 0.621 Increase 0.36%
    138 Increase (4)  Sao Tome and Principe 0.618 Increase 1.00%
    139 Decrease (7)  Namibia 0.615 Increase 0.46%
    140 Increase (1)  Laos 0.607 Increase 0.88%
    140 Decrease (4)  East Timor 0.607 Decrease 0.18%
    140 Increase (3)  Vanuatu 0.607 Increase 0.24%
    143 Increase (4)    Nepal 0.602 Increase 0.94%
    144 Increase (4)  Eswatini 0.597 Increase 1.57%
    145 Decrease (6)  Equatorial Guinea 0.596 Increase 0.26%
    146 Increase (3)  Cambodia 0.593 Increase 0.85%
    146 Decrease (1)  Zimbabwe 0.593 Increase 1.34%
    148 Decrease (3)  Angola 0.586 Increase 1.27%
    149 Increase (1)  Myanmar 0.585 Increase 1.26%
    150 Increase (5)  Syria 0.577 Decrease 1.21%
    151 Increase (2)  Cameroon 0.576 Increase 1.06%
    152 Steady  Kenya 0.575 Increase 0.49%
    153 Decrease (9)  Republic of the Congo 0.571 Increase 0.16%
    154 Decrease (4)  Zambia 0.565 Increase 0.60%
    155 Decrease (1)  Solomon Islands 0.564 Increase 0.23%
    156 Steady  Comoros 0.558 Increase 0.64%
    156 Increase (2)  Papua New Guinea 0.558 Increase 1.02%
    158 Decrease (2)  Mauritania 0.556 Increase 0.79%
    159 Increase (8)  Ivory Coast 0.550 Increase 1.38%
    160 Increase (2)  Tanzania 0.549 Increase 0.98%
    161 Decrease (2)  Pakistan 0.544 Increase 0.68%
    162 Increase (4)  Togo 0.539 Increase 1.12%
    163 Decrease (3)  Haiti 0.535 Increase 1.94%
    163 Increase (1)  Nigeria 0.535 Increase 0.95%
    165 Steady  Rwanda 0.534 Increase 0.80%
    166 Decrease (6)  Benin 0.525 Increase 0.59%
    166 Decrease (3)  Uganda 0.525 Increase 0.41%
    168 Increase (3)  Lesotho 0.514 Increase 0.88%
    169 Increase (4)  Malawi 0.512 Increase 1.06%
    170 Decrease (1)  Senegal 0.511 Increase 0.80%
    171 Increase (1)  Djibouti 0.509 Increase 0.96%
    172 Decrease (4)  Sudan 0.508 Increase 0.40%
    173 Decrease (3)  Madagascar 0.501 Increase 0.16%
    174 Increase (1)  Gambia 0.500 Increase 0.76%
    175 Increase (6)  Ethiopia 0.498 Increase 1.74%
    176 Decrease (2)  Eritrea 0.492 Increase 0.55%
    177 Increase (2)  Guinea-Bissau 0.483 Increase 0.79%
    178 Steady  Liberia 0.481 Increase 0.41%
    179 Increase (1)  Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.479 Increase 1.01%
    180 Decrease (5)  Afghanistan 0.478 Increase 0.59%
    181 Increase (1)  Sierra Leone 0.477 Increase 1.01%
    182 Increase (1)  Guinea 0.465 Increase 1.04%
    183 Decrease (6)  Yemen 0.455 Decrease 1.03%
    184 Increase (2)  Burkina Faso 0.449 Increase 1.72%
    185 Decrease (2)  Mozambique 0.446 Increase 0.95%
    186 Increase (1)  Mali 0.428 Increase 0.53%
    187 Decrease (2)  Burundi 0.426 Increase 0.46%
    188 Increase (2)  Central African Republic 0.404 Increase 0.75%
    189 Increase (2)  Niger 0.400 Increase 1.54%
    190 Decrease (1)  Chad 0.394 Increase 0.77%
    191 Decrease (3)  South Sudan 0.385 Decrease 1.00%

    Regions and groups[edit]

    The Human Development Report also reports the HDI for various groups of countries. These include regional groupings based on the UNDP regional classifications,[20] HDI groups including the countries currently falling into a given HDI bracket, OECD members and various other UN groupings.[21] The aggregate HDI values are calculated in the same way as for individual countries with the input data being the weighted average for all countries with available data in the group.[22]

    Table of regions and groups by HDI[23]
    Region or group 1990 2000 2010 2015 2018 2019 2020 2021
    OECD 0.795 0.840 0.875 0.893 0.901 0.905 0.897 0.899
    Very high human development 0.784 0.826 0.868 0.889 0.898 0.902 0.895 0.896
    Europe and Central Asia 0.664 0.681 0.746 0.783 0.798 0.802 0.793 0.796
    Latin America and the Caribbean 0.633 0.689 0.733 0.758 0.766 0.768 0.755 0.754
    High human development 0.557 0.625 0.700 0.734 0.751 0.756 0.753 0.754
    East Asia and the Pacific 0.507 0.592 0.684 0.722 0.741 0.748 0.748 0.749
    World 0.601 0.645 0.697 0.724 0.736 0.739 0.735 0.732
    Small Island Developing States 0.601 0.649 0.693 0.723 0.734 0.738 0.732 0.730
    Arab states 0.555 0.618 0.676 0.697 0.711 0.715 0.708 0.708
    Developing countries 0.513 0.569 0.638 0.673 0.687 0.691 0.687 0.685
    Medium human development 0.453 0.506 0.582 0.627 0.643 0.645 0.642 0.636
    South Asia 0.442 0.500 0.576 0.623 0.640 0.641 0.638 0.632
    Sub-Saharan Africa 0.407 0.430 0.503 0.534 0.547 0.552 0.549 0.547
    Least developed countries 0.357 0.408 0.487 0.520 0.537 0.542 0.542 0.540
    Low human development 0.356 0.399 0.477 0.506 0.518 0.522 0.519 0.518

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^ a b c HDI not available before 2018 in latest report

    References[edit]

    1. ^ a b "Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    2. ^ a b c d Human Development Report 2021-22: Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a Transforming World (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. pp. 272–276. ISBN 978-9-211-26451-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    3. ^ Ivanova, I.; Arcelus, F. J.; Srinivasan, G. (February 1999). "An Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the Human Development Index". Social Indicators Research. 46 (2): 157–179. doi:10.1023/A:1006839208067. ISSN 0303-8300. JSTOR 27522364. S2CID 142628010. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    4. ^ a b Sanderson, Warren; Scherbov, Sergei; Simone, Ghislandi (8 November 2018). "The best country to live in might not be Norway after all". Quartz. Archived from the original on 23 January 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    5. ^ Ravallion, Martin (1 November 2012). "Troubling tradeoffs in the Human Development Index". Journal of Development Economics. 99 (2): 201–209. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2012.01.003. ISSN 0304-3878. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    6. ^ Hicks, Douglas A. (1 August 1997). "The inequality-adjusted human development index: A constructive proposal". World Development. 25 (8): 1283–1298. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00034-X. ISSN 0305-750X. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
    7. ^ Sharma, Shalendra D. (1 February 1997). "Making the Human Development Index (HDI) gender-sensitive". Gender & Development. 5 (1): 60–61. doi:10.1080/741922304. ISSN 1355-2074. PMID 12320744. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
    8. ^ Human Development Report 2010 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 2010. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-230-28445-6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
    9. ^ Human development report 1995 (PDF). Oxford University Press for the United Nations Development Programme. 1995. pp. 72–74. ISBN 0-19-510023-9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
    10. ^ Castles, Ian (1998). "The Mismeasure of Nations: A Review Essay". Population and Development Review. 24 (4): 834–836. doi:10.2307/2808029. ISSN 0098-7921. JSTOR 2808029. Archived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
    11. ^ a b Iñaki, Permanyer; Jeroen, Smits (31 May 2018). "The Subnational Human Development Index: Moving beyond country-level averages". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    12. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 291–231. ISBN 978-9-211-26442-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    13. ^ Human Development Report 1990 (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 1 May 1990. pp. iii, iv, 5, 9, 12. ISBN 0-1950-6481-X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    14. ^ a b c "Human Development Report 2019 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. pp. 2–4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    15. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Reader's Guide". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
    16. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". UNDP.
    17. ^ "Subnational Human Development Index (SHDI) Area Database - Somalia". Global Data Lab. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
    18. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    19. ^ "Developing regions | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
    20. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: Reader's Guide | Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
    21. ^ "Human Development Report 2020 – Technical notes" (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
    22. ^ Human Development Report 2021-22: Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a Transforming World (PDF). hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. p. 280. ISBN 978-9-211-26451-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.

    External links[edit]