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Julius Evola Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Evola

Julius Evola
Evola.jpg
Evola in the early 1940s
Born
Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola

(1898-05-19)19 May 1898
Died11 June 1974(1974-06-11) (aged 76)
Era20th-century philosophy
Region
SchoolPerennialism
Traditionalism
Main interests
Notable ideas

Giulio Cesare Andrea "Julius" Evola (Italian: [ˈɛːvola];[2] 19 May 1898 – 11 June 1974) was an Italian philosopher, poet, painter, esotericist, and radical-right ideologue.[3] Evola regarded his perspectives and spiritual values as aristocratic, masculine, traditionalist, heroic and defiantly reactionary.[citation needed]

Evola was born in Rome. He served as an artillery officer in the First World War. He was a Dada artist but gave up painting in his twenties. He said he considered suicide until he had a revelation while reading a Buddhist text. His interests in the early 1920s led him deeper into the occult; he wrote fastidiously on Western esotericism and of Eastern mysticism, ultimately developing the doctrine of "magical idealism".

His writings cover themes such as Hermeticism, the metaphysics of war and of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, the essence and history of civilisations, decadence and various philosophic and religious traditions dealing with both the Classics and the Orient. Evola believed that mankind is living in the Kali Yuga, a Dark Age of unleashed materialistic appetites, spiritual oblivion and organised deviancy. To counter this and call in a primordial rebirth, Evola presented his world of tradition. According to scholar Franco Ferraresi, Evola’s thought can be considered one of the most consistently "antiegalitarian, antiliberal, antidemocratic, and antipopular systems in the twentieth century".[4]

Autobiographical remarks by Evola allude to his having worked for the Sicherheitsdienst, or SD, the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party.[5][6] In 1945 in Vienna, a Soviet shell fragment paralysed him from the waist down.[7] During his trial in 1951, Evola denied being a fascist and instead referred to himself as "superfascista" (lit.'superfascist'). Concerning this statement, historian Elisabetta Cassina Wolff wrote that "It is unclear whether this meant that Evola was placing himself above or beyond Fascism".[8]

Evola has been called the "chief ideologue" of Italy's radical right after World War II.[9] He continues to influence contemporary traditionalist and neo-fascist movements.[10][11][12][13]

Early life[edit]

Evola serving as an artillery officer on Monte Cimone di Tonezza, 1917.

Giulio Cesare Evola was born in Rome on 19 May 1898,[14] the second son of Vincenzo Evola (born 1854), a telegraphic mechanic chief,[15] and Concetta Mangiapane (born 1865), a landowner.[16] As per the Sicilian naming convention of the era, Evola was partly named after his maternal grandfather. Both his parents were born in Cinisi, a small town in the Province of Palermo on the north-western coast of Sicily, and married there on 25 November 1892.[17] The paternal grandparents of Evola were Giuseppe Evola, a joiner by trade, and Maria Cusumano. Evola's maternal grandparents were Cesare Mangiapane, reported as being a shopkeeper, and his wife Caterina Munacó. Giulio Cesare Evola had an elder brother, Giuseppe Gaspare Dinamo Evola, born in 1895 in Rome.[18][non-primary source needed] His family were devout Roman Catholics.[19] Evola considered details about his early life irrelevant, and is noted for hiding some details of his personal life.[20][21]

He is sometimes described as a baron,[22][20] probably in reference to a purported distant relationship with a minor aristocratic family, the Evoli, who were the barons of Castropignano in the Kingdom of Sicily in the late Middle Ages.[20][23] He adopted the name Julius as a connection to ancient Rome.[21][when?]

Evola rebelled against his Catholic upbringing.[11] He studied engineering at the Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci in Rome, but did not complete his course, later claiming this was because he did not want to be associated with "bourgeois academic recognition" and titles such as "doctor and engineer".[24][25] In his teenage years, Evola immersed himself in painting—which he considered one of his natural talents—and literature, including Oscar Wilde and Gabriele d'Annunzio. He was introduced to philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche and Otto Weininger.[26] Other early philosophical influences included Italian man of letters Carlo Michelstaedter and German post-Hegelian thinker Max Stirner.[27]

He was attracted to the avant-garde, and briefly associated with Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's Futurist movement during his time at university. He broke with Marinetti in 1916 as Evola disagreed with his extreme nationalism and advocacy of industry.[20][28] In the First World War, Evola served as an artillery officer on the Asiago plateau. Despite reservations that Italy was fighting on the wrong side (against Germany, which Evola admired for its discipline and hierarchy),[29] Evola volunteered in 1917 and briefly saw frontline service the following year.[30][31] Evola returned to civilian life after the war and became a painter in Italy's Dadaist movement; he described his paintings as "inner landscapes".[30][21] He wrote his poetry in French and recited it in cabarets accompanied by classical music.[21] Through his painting and poetry, and work on the short-lived journal Revue Bleue, he became a prominent representative of Dadaism in Italy. (In his autobiography, Evola described his Dadaism is an attack on rationalist cultural values.[32]) In 1922, after concluding that avant-garde art was becoming commercialised and stiffened by academic conventions, he gave up painting and renounced poetry.[24][33][32] Evola was a keen mountaineer, describing it as a source of revelatory spiritual experience.[24]

Evola purportedly went through a "spiritual crisis" through the intolerance of civilian life and his need to "transcend the emptiness" of normal human activity. He experimented with hallucinogenics and magic, which, he wrote, almost brought him to madness.[24] In 1922, at 23 years old, he considered suicide, he wrote in The Cinnabar Path. He said he avoided suicide thanks to a revelation he had while reading an early Buddhist text that dealt with shedding all forms of identity other than absolute transcendence.[30][21] Evola would later publish the text The Doctrine of Awakening, which he regarded as a repayment of his debt to Buddhism.[34] By this time his interests led him into spiritual, transcendental, and "supra-rational" studies. He began reading various esoteric texts and gradually delved deeper into the occult, alchemy, magic, and Oriental studies, particularly Tibetan Tantric yoga.[35] Historian Richard H. Drake wrote that Evola's alienation from contemporary values resembled that of other Lost Generation intellectuals who came of age in World War I, but took an uncompromising, eccentric and reactionary form.[36]

Philosophy[edit]

Evola's philosophy prominently referenced Hermetic thought (Hermes Trismegistus illustrated).

Ferraresi described Evola's writings as blending ideas from German idealism, Eastern doctrines, traditionalism, and especially the interwar Conservative Revolution, "with which Evola had a deep personal involvement".[37] Evola attempted to construct "a model of man striving to reach the 'absolute' within his inner self", Ferraresi wrote.[37] Evola considered human history to be, in general, decadent.[37] Matthew Rose wrote that "Evola claimed to show how basic human activities—from eating and sex, commerce and games, to war and social intercourse—were elevated by Tradition into something ritualistic, becoming activities whose very repetitiveness offered a glimpse of an unchanging eternal realm". Ensuring Tradition's triumph of order over chaos, in Evola's view, required an obedience to aristocracy.[38]

Evola wrote prodigiously on mysticism, Tantra, Hermeticism, the myth of the Holy Grail and Western esotericism.[39] German Egyptologist and scholar of esotericism Florian Ebeling noted that Evola's The Hermetic Tradition is viewed as an "extremely important work" on Hermeticism for esotericists.[40] Evola gave particular focus to Cesare della Riviera's text Il Mondo Magico degli Heroi, which he later republished in modern Italian. He held that Riviera's text was consonant with the goals of "high magic" – the reshaping of the earthly human into a transcendental 'god man'. According to Evola, the alleged "timeless" Traditional science was able to come to lucid expression through this text, in spite of the "coverings" added to it to prevent accusations from the church.[41] Though Evola rejected Carl Jung's interpretation of alchemy, Jung described Evola's The Hermetic Tradition as a "magisterial account of Hermetic philosophy".[42] In Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition, the philosopher Glenn Alexander Magee favoured Evola's interpretation over that of Jung's.[43] In 1988, a journal devoted to Hermetic thought published a section of Evola's book and described it as "Luciferian."[44]

Evola later confessed that he was not a Buddhist, and that his text on Buddhism was meant to balance his earlier work on the Hindu tantras.[45] Evola's interest in tantra was spurred on by correspondence with John Woodroffe.[46] Evola was attracted to the active aspect of tantra, and its claim to provide a practical means to spiritual experience, over the more "passive" approaches in other forms of Eastern spirituality.[47] In Tantric Buddhism in East Asia, Richard K. Payne, Dean of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, argued that Evola manipulated Tantra in the service of right wing violence, and that the emphasis on "power" in The Yoga of Power gave insight into his mentality.[48]

Evola advocated that "differentiated individuals" following the Left-Hand Path use dark violent sexual powers against the modern world. For Evola, these "virile heroes" are both generous and cruel, possess the ability to rule, and commit "Dionysian" acts that might be seen as conventionally immoral. For Evola, the Left Hand path embraces violence as a means of transgression.[49]: 217 

According to A. James Gregor, Evola's definition of spirituality can be found in Meditations on the Peaks: "what has been successfully actualized and translated into a sense of superiority which is experienced inside by the soul, and a noble demeanor, which is expressed in the body."[28]: 101–102  Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke wrote that Evola's "rigorous New Age spirituality speaks directly to those who reject absolutely the leveling world of democracy, capitalism, multi-racialism and technology at the outset of the twenty-first century. Their acute sense of cultural chaos can find powerful relief in his ideal of total renewal."[11]

Stephen Atkins summarized Evola's philosophy as "a complete rejection of modern society and its mores".[4] Evola loathed liberalism, because, as Rose wrote, "Everything he revered—social castes, natural inequalities, and sacred privileges—was targeted by liberalism for reform or abolition."[50] Goodrick-Clarke wrote that Evola invoked Indo-Aryan tradition to advance "a radical doctrine of anti-egalitarianism, anti-democracy, anti-liberalism and anti-Semitism".[11]

Magical idealism[edit]

Thomas Sheehan wrote that "Evola's first philosophical works from the 'twenties were dedicated to reshaping neo-idealism from a philosophy of Absolute Spirit and Mind into a philosophy of the "absolute individual" and action."[51] Accordingly, Evola developed the doctrine of "magical idealism", which held that "the Ego must understand that everything that seems to have a reality independent of it is nothing but an illusion, caused by its own deficiency."[51] For Evola, this ever-increasing unity with the "absolute individual" was consistent with unconstrained liberty, and therefore unconditional power.[52] In his 1925 work Essays on Magical Idealism,[53] Evola declared that "God does not exist. The Ego must create him by making itself divine."[51]

According to Sheehan, Evola discovered the power of metaphysical mythology while developing his theories. This led to his advocacy of supra-rational intellectual intuition over discursive knowledge. In Evola's view, discursive knowledge separates man from Being.[51] Sheehan stated that this position is a theme in certain interpretations of Western philosophers such as Plato, Thomas Aquinas, and Martin Heidegger that was exaggerated by Evola.[51] Evola would later write:

The truths that allow us to understand the world of Tradition are not those that can be "learned" or "discussed." They either are or are not. We can only remember them, and that happens when we are freed from the obstacles represented by various human constructions (chief among these are the results and methods of the authorized "researchers") and have awakened the capacity to see from the nonhuman viewpoint, which is the same as the Traditional viewpoint ... Traditional truths have always been held to be essentially non-human.[51]

Evola developed a doctrine of the "two natures": the natural world and the primordial "world of 'Being'". He believed that these "two natures" impose form and quality on lower matter and create a hierarchical "great chain of Being."[51] He understood "spiritual virility" as signifying orientation towards this postulated transcendent principle.[51] He held that the State should reflect this "ordering from above" and the consequent hierarchical differentiation of individuals according to their "organic preformation". By "organic preformation" he meant that which "gathers, preserves, and refines one's talents and qualifications for determinate functions."[51]

Ur Group[edit]

Among Evola's chief contacts was Arturo Reghini, a critic of Christianity and democracy and advocate for the ancient Roman aristocracy. Reghini welcomed the rise of Fascist Italy and sought to return to pre-Christian spirituality through the promotion of a "cultured magic".[54][55] Through Reghini, Evola was introduced to the French Orientalist René Guénon, a leading figure of traditionalism at the time who shared an interest in the occult.[36][21] Guénon's 1927 text Crisis of the Modern World inspired Evola to organise his thoughts around the critique of modernity,[36] and Guénon would be one of the few writers Evola found worthy to debate with.[56] In 1927, Reghini and Evola, along with other Italian esotericists, founded the Gruppo di Ur ("Ur Group").[57] The purpose of this group was to attempt to bring the members' individual identities into such a superhuman state of power and awareness that they would be able to exert a magical influence on the world. The group employed techniques from Buddhist, Tantric, and rare Hermetic texts.[58] They aimed to provide a "soul" to the burgeoning Fascist movement of the time through the revival of ancient Roman religion, and to influence the fascist regime through esotericism.[59][60]

Articles on occultism from the Ur Group were later published in Introduction to Magic.[28]: 89 [46] Reghini's support of Freemasonry would however prove contentious for Evola; accordingly, Reghini broke himself from Evola and left the Ur Group in 1928.[54] Reghini accused him of plagiarising his thoughts in the book Pagan Imperialism;[61] Evola, in turn, blamed him for its premature publication.[62] Evola's later work owed a considerable debt to Guénon's Crisis of the Modern World,[63] though he diverged from Guénon on the issue of the relationship between warriors and priests.[64]

Sex and gender roles[edit]

Evola believed that the alleged higher qualities expected of a man of a particular race were not those expected of a woman of the same race. He held that "just relations between the sexes" involved women acknowledging their "inequality" with men.[65] He quoted Joseph de Maistre's statement that "Woman cannot be superior except as woman, but from the moment in which she desires to emulate man she is nothing but a monkey."[66] Evola believed that women's liberation was "the renunciation by woman of her right to be a woman".[67] A woman "could traditionally participate in the sacred hierarchical order only in a mediated fashion through her relationship with a man."[68] He held, as a feature of his idealised gender relations, the Hindu sati, which for him was a form of sacrifice indicating women's respect for patriarchal traditions.[69] For the "pure, feminine" woman, "man is not perceived by her as a mere husband or lover, but as her lord."[70] Women would find their true identity in total subjugation to men.[61][page needed]

Evola regarded matriarchy and goddess religions as a symptom of decadence, and preferred a hyper-masculine, warrior ethos.[71] He was influenced by Hans Blüher; a proponent of the Männerbund concept as a model for his "warrior-band" or "warrior-society".[61][page needed] Goodrick-Clarke noted the fundamental influence of Otto Weininger's book Sex and Character on Evola's dualism of male-female spirituality. According to Goodrich-Clarke, "Evola's celebration of virile spirituality was rooted in Weininger's work, which was widely translated by the end of the First World War."[11] Evola denounced homosexuality as "useless" for his purposes. He did not neglect sadomasochism, so long as sadism and masochism "are magnifications of an element potentially present in the deepest essence of eros."[72] Then, it would be possible to "extend, in a transcendental and perhaps ecstatic way, the possibilities of sex."[72]

Evola held that women "played" with men, threatened their masculinity, and lured them into a "constrictive" grasp with their sexuality.[73] He wrote that "It should not be expected of women that they return to what they really are ... when men themselves retain only the semblance of true virility",[70] and lamented that "men instead of being in control of sex are controlled by it and wander about like drunkards".[49][page needed] He believed that in Tantra and in sex magic, in which he saw a strategy for aggression, he found the means to counter the "emasculated" West.[49][page needed][74] Evola also said that the "ritual violation of virgins",[72] and "whipping women" were a means of "consciousness raising",[68] so long as these practices were done to the intensity required to produce the proper "liminal psychic climate".[68]

Evola translated Weininger's Sex and Character into Italian. Dissatisfied with simply translating Weininger's work, he wrote the text Eros and the Mysteries of Love: The Metaphysics of Sex (1958), where his views on sexuality were dealt with at length.[75][76] Arthur Versluis described this text as Evola's "most interesting" work aside from Revolt Against the Modern World.[63] This book remains popular among many 'New Age' adherents.[77]

Evola scorned modern pornography for being a "scanty source" of erotic experience, denouncing it as "dreadfully squalid" both visually and in essence.[78][non-primary source needed]

Race[edit]

Evola's views on race had roots in his aristocratic elitism. According to European studies professor Paul Furlong, Evola developed "the law of the regression of castes" in Revolt Against the Modern World and other writings on racism from the 1930s and World War II period. In Evola's view "power and civilization have progressed from one to another of the four castes—sacred leaders, warrior nobility, bourgeoisie (economy, 'merchants') and slaves".[79] Furlong explains: "for Evola, the core of racial superiority lay in the spiritual qualities of the higher castes, which expressed themselves in physical as well as in cultural features, but were not determined by them. The law of the regression of castes places racism at the core of Evola's philosophy, since he sees an increasing predominance of lower races as directly expressed through modern mass democracies."[79] Evola used "a man of race" to mean "a man of breeding".[11][80] "Only of an elite may one say that 'it is of a race': the people are only people, mass," Evola wrote in 1969.[80]

In Synthesis of the Doctrine of Race (1941) (Italian: Sintesi di Dottrina della Razza), Evola provides an overview of his ideas concerning race and eugenics, introducing the concept of "spiritual racism",[81] and "esoteric-traditionalist racism".[82]

Prior to the end of the Second World War, Evola frequently used the term "Aryan" to refer to the nobility, who in his view were imbued with traditional spirituality.[83] Wolff notes that Evola seems to have stopped writing about race in 1945, but adds that the intellectual themes of Evola's writings were otherwise unchanged. Evola continued to write about elitism and his contempt for the weak. His "doctrine of the Aryan-Roman super-race was simply restated as a doctrine of the 'leaders of men' ... no longer with reference to the SS, but to the mediaeval Teutonic knights or the Knights Templar, already mentioned in Rivolta."[84][61]

Evola wrote of "inferior, non-European races".[85][86] He believed that military aggressions such as Italy's 1935 invasion of Ethiopia were justified by Italy's dominance, outweighing concerns he had about the possibility of race-mixing.[87] Richard H. Drake wrote that "Evola was never prepared to discount the value of blood altogether". Evola wrote:[when?] "a certain balanced consciousness and dignity of race can be considered healthy" in a time where "the exaltation of the negro and all the rest, anticolonialist psychosis and integrationist fanaticism [are] all parallel phenomena in the decline of Europe and the West."[88] Furlong wrote that a 1957 article by Evola about America "leaves no doubt as to his deep prejudice against black people".[89]

"Spiritual racism"[edit]

For his spiritual interpretation of the different racial psychologies, Evola found the work of German race theorist Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss invaluable. Like Evola, Clauss believed that physical race and spiritual race could diverge as a consequence of miscegenation.[73] Evola's racism included racism of the body, soul, and spirit, giving primacy to the latter factor, writing that "races only declined when their spirit failed."[11]

Like René Guénon, Evola believed that mankind is living in the Kali Yuga of the Hindu tradition—the Dark Age of unleashed materialistic appetites. He argued that both Italian fascism and Nazism represented hope that the "celestial" Aryan race would be reconstituted.[90][page needed] He drew on mythological accounts of super-races and their decline, particularly the Hyperboreans, and maintained that traces of Hyperborean influence could be felt in Indo-European man. He felt that Indo-European men had devolved from these higher mythological races.[91] Gregor noted that several contemporary criticisms of Evola's theory were published: "In one of Fascism's most important theoretical journals, Evola's critic pointed out that many Nordic-Aryans, not to speak of Mediterranean Aryans, fail to demonstrate any Hyperborean properties. Instead, they make obvious their materialism, their sensuality, their indifference to loyalty and sacrifice, together with their consuming greed. How do they differ from 'inferior' races, and why should anyone wish, in any way, to favor them?"[28]: 106 

Concerning the relationship between "spiritual racism" and biological racism, Evola put forth the following viewpoint, which Furlong described as pseudo-scientific:

The factor of "blood" or "race" has its importance, because it is not psychologically—in the brain or the opinions of the individual—but in the very deepest forces of life that traditions live and act as typical formative energies. Blood registers the effects of this action, and indeed offers through heredity, a matter that is already refined and pre-formed ...[92]

Antisemitism[edit]

Evola wrote the foreword and an essay in the second Italian edition of the infamous antisemitic fabrication The Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in 1938 by the Catholic fascist Giovanni Preziosi.[93][94] In it, Evola argued that the Protocols—whether or not a forgery—"contain the plan for an occult war, whose objective is the utter destruction, in the non-Jewish peoples, of all tradition, class, aristocracy, and hierarchy, and of all moral, religious, and spiritual values."[93] After the assassination in 1938 of his friend Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, the antisemitic leader of the fascist Romanian Iron Guard, Evola railed against "the Judaic horde" that he accused of planning "Talmudic, Israelite tyranny."[95][11]

Evola's antisemitism did not emphasise the Nazi conception of Jews as "representatives of a biological race", but rather as "the carriers of a world view, a way of being and thinking—simply put, a spirit—that corresponded to the 'worst' and 'most decadent' features of modernity: democracy, egalitarianism and materialism", Wolff writes.[96][11][97] Evola dismissed the biological racism of chief Nazi theorist Alfred Rosenberg and others as reductionist and materialistic.[11] He also argued that one could be "Aryan" but have a "Jewish" soul, and could be "Jewish" but have an "Aryan" soul.[98] In Evola's view, Otto Weininger and Carlo Michelstaedter were Jews of "sufficiently heroic, ascetic, and sacral" character to fit the latter category.[28]: 105  In 1970, Evola described Adolf Hitler's antisemitism as a paranoid idée fixe that damaged the reputation of the Third Reich.[11]

"Caste" and class[edit]

Evola believed that society develops a "regression of castes" where classes he viewed as superior were replaced by those he viewed as inferior. He believed that the rule of spiritual leaders (the highest class) was replaced by that of warriors (the second highest) then by merchants and finally by the proletariat (whom he described as "spiritual eunuchs", quoting another philosopher). He believed that each aspect of society was effected by the dominant "caste", for example, war in the first type was "holy war" and in the second type "defending the honour of one's lord". In addition, bourgeois rule makes "usury" socially acceptable. [99][page needed]

Written works[edit]

Evola wrote more than 36 books and 1,100 articles. In some of his 1930s writings, and in works about magic, Evola used pseudonyms, including Ea (after a Babylonian god), Carlo d'Altavilla, and Arthos (from the Arthur legend), Furlong wrote.[100]

Christianity[edit]

In 1928, Evola wrote an attack on Christianity titled Pagan Imperialism, which proposed transforming fascism into a system consistent with ancient Roman values and Western esotericism. Evola proposed that fascism should be a vehicle for reinstating the caste system and aristocracy of antiquity. Although he invoked the term "fascism" in this text, his diatribe against the Catholic Church was criticised by both Benito Mussolini's fascist regime and the Vatican itself. A. James Gregor argued that the text was an attack on fascism as it stood at the time of writing, but noted that Mussolini made use of it to threaten the Vatican with the possibility of an "anti-clerical fascism".[101][102]: 89–91  Richard Drake wrote that Evola "rarely missed an opportunity to attack the Catholic Church".[103] On account of Evola's anti-Christian proposals, in April 1928 the Vatican-backed right wing Catholic journal Revue Internationale des Sociétés Secrètes published an article entitled "Un Sataniste Italien: Julius Evola", accusing him of satanism.[104][105]

In his The Mystery of the Grail (1937), Evola discarded Christian interpretations of the Holy Grail and wrote that it "symbolizes the principle of an immortalizing and transcendent force connected to the primordial state ... The mystery of the Grail is a mystery of a warrior initiation."[106] He held that the Ghibellines, who had fought the Guelph for control of Northern and Central Italy in the thirteenth century, had within them the residual influences of pre-Christian Celtic and Nordic traditions that represented his conception of the Grail myth. He also held that the Guelph victory against the Ghibellines represented a regression of the castes, since the merchant caste took over from the warrior caste.[107][page needed] In the epilogue to the book, Evola argued that the fictitious The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, regardless of whether it was authentic or not, was a cogent representation of modernity.[108][109] The historian Richard Barber said, "Evola mixes rhetoric, prejudice, scholarship, and politics into a strange version of the present and future, but in the process he brings together for the first time interest in the esoteric and in conspiracy theory which characterize much of the later Grail literature."[110]

Goodrick-Clarke wrote that Evola "regarded the advent of Christianity as an era of unprecedented decline", because Christianity's egalitarianism and accessibility undermined the Roman ideals of "duty, honor and command" that Evola believed in.[11]

Buddhism[edit]

In his The Doctrine of Awakening (1943), Evola argued that the Pāli Canon could be held to represent true Buddhism.[111] His interpretation of Buddhism is intended to be anti-democratic. He believed that Buddhism revealed the essence of an "Aryan" tradition that had become corrupted and lost in the West. He believed it could be interpreted to reveal the superiority of a warrior caste.[45] Harry Oldmeadow described Evola's work on Buddhism as exhibiting a Nietzschean influence,[112] but Evola criticised Nietzsche's purported anti-ascetic prejudice. Evola claimed that the book "received the official approbation of the Pāli [Text] Society", and was published by a reputable Orientalist publisher.[45] Evola's interpretation of Buddhism, as put forth in his article "Spiritual Virility in Buddhism", is in conflict with the post-WWII scholarship of the Orientalist Giuseppe Tucci, who argues that the viewpoint that Buddhism advocates universal benevolence is legitimate.[113] Arthur Versluis stated that Evola's writing on Buddhism was a vehicle for his own theories, but was a far from accurate rendition of the subject, and he held that much the same could be said of Evola's writing on Hermeticism.[63] Ñāṇavīra Thera was inspired to become a bhikkhu from reading Evola's text The Doctrine of Awakening in 1945 while hospitalised in Sorrento.[45]

Modernity[edit]

Evola's Revolt Against the Modern World (1934) promotes the mythology of an ancient Golden Age which gradually declined into modern decadence. In this work, Evola described the features of his idealised traditional society in which religious and temporal power were created and united not by priests, but by warriors expressing spiritual power. In mythology, he saw evidence of the West's superiority over the East.[citation needed] Moreover, he claimed that the traditional elite had the ability to access power and knowledge through a hierarchical magic which differed from the lower "superstitious and fraudulent" forms of magic.[101] He asserted that history's intellectuals starting as early as ancient Greece had undermined traditional values through their questioning.[114] He insisted that only "nonmodern forms, institutions, and knowledge" could produce a "real renewal ... in those who are still capable of receiving it."[63] The text was "immediately recognized by Mircea Eliade and other intellectuals who allegedly advanced ideas associated with Tradition."[84] Eliade was one of the most influential twentieth-century historians of religion, a fascist sympathiser associated with the Romanian Christian right wing movement Iron Guard.[61][115] Evola was aware of the importance of myth from his readings of Georges Sorel, one of the key intellectual influences on fascism.[61][page needed] Hermann Hesse described Revolt Against the Modern World as "really dangerous."[107] Richard Drake wrote that the book was not widely influential in the 1930s but eventually received a cult following on the extreme right and is now considered Evola's most important work.[36]

Ride the Tiger (1961), Evola's last major work, saw him examining dissolution and subversion in a world in which God was dead, and rejected the possibility of any political or collective revival of Tradition due to his belief that the modern world had fallen too far into the Kali Yuga for any such thing to be possible. Instead of this and rather than advocating a return to religion as Rene Guenon had, he conceptualised what he considered an apolitical manual for surviving and ultimately transcending the Kali Yuga. This idea was summarised in the title of the book, the Tantric metaphor of "Riding the Tiger" which in general practice, consisted of turning things that were considered inhibitory to spiritual progress by mainstream Brahmanical society (for example, meat, alcohol and in very rare circumstances, sex, were all employed by Tantric practitioners) into a means of spiritual transcendence. The process that Evola described involved potentially making use of everything from modern music, hallucinogenic drugs, relationships with the opposite sex and even substituting the atmosphere of an urban existence for the Theophany that Traditionalists had identified in virgin nature.[116]

During the 1960s Evola thought right-wing entities could no longer reverse the corruption of modern civilisation.[117] E. C. Wolff noted that this is why Evola wrote Ride the Tiger, choosing to distance himself completely from active political engagement, without excluding the possibility of action in the future. He argued that one should stay firm and ready to intervene when the tiger of modernity "is tired of running."[118] Goodrick-Clarke notes that, "Evola sets up the ideal of the 'active nihilist' who is prepared to act with violence against modern decadence."[119]

Other writings[edit]

Evola contributed to Giuseppe Bottai’s magazine Critica Fascista for a time.[120] From 1934 to 1943 Evola was responsible for 'Diorama Filosofico', the cultural page of Il Regime Fascista, an influential radical fascist daily newspaper owned by Roberto Farinacci, the pro-Nazi mayor of Cremona.[121][122][123] Evola used the page to publish international right-wing thinkers.[122] Evola's writings on the page argued for imperialism; leading up to Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia, Evola praised "the sacred valor of war".[124] During the same period he contributed to the antisemite Giovanni Preziosi's magazine La vita italiana.[125][124]

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke has written that Evola's 1945 essay "American 'Civilization'" described the United States as "the final stage of European decline into the 'interior formlessness' of vacuous individualism, conformity and vulgarity under the universal aegis of money-making." According to Goodrick-Clarke, Evola argued that the U.S. "mechanistic and rational philosophy of progress combined with a mundane horizon of prosperity to transform the world into an enormous suburban shopping mall."[11][page needed]

In the posthumously published collection of writings, Metaphysics of War, Evola, in line with the conservative revolutionary Ernst Jünger, explored the viewpoint that war could be a spiritually fulfilling experience. He proposed the necessity of a transcendental orientation in a warrior.[126]

Evola translated some works of Oswald Spengler and Ortega y Gasset to Italian.[127]

Politics[edit]

Evola in 1940.

Evola experienced Mussolini's March on Rome in 1922 and was intrigued by fascism.[4] However, he declined to join the National Fascist Party or any other party of the time.[4][123] His lack of party membership was later emphasized by admirers to distance him from the regime.[123] Ferraresi wrote that Evola's "lofty nonconformism" and "imperial paganism" did not fit well in a party that would make the Catholic Church a regime pillar.[123] Evola would praise fascism for "its attempt to refashion the Italian people into a severe, military mold", in Ferraresi's words, but would criticize any concessions to "democratic" pressures.[80] Atkins wrote that "Evola was critical of the Fascist regime because it was not fascist enough."[4] Evola sought a state ruled by an elite with spiritual values, and would cite two models of such an elite as the Nazi SS and Romanian Iron Guard, known for their violence.[4]

Evola's first published political work in 1925 was anti-fascist.[citation needed] He applauded Mussolini's anti-bourgeois orientation and his goal of making Italian citizens into hardened warriors, but criticised Fascist populism, party politics, and elements of leftism that he saw in the fascist regime.[49][page needed] Evola saw Mussolini's Fascist Party as possessing no cultural or spiritual foundation. He was passionate about infusing it with these elements in order to make it suitable for his ideal conception of Übermensch culture which, in Evola's view, characterised the imperial grandeur of pre-Christian Europe.[49][page needed] He applauded the fascist motto "Everything in the State, nothing outside the State, nothing against the State".[128] But his Traditionalist ethos rejected nationalism, which he viewed as a conception of the modern West and not of a Traditional hierarchical social arrangement.[129] He stated that to become "truly human", one would have to "overcome brotherly contamination" and "purge oneself" of the feeling that one is united with others "because of blood, affections, country or human destiny".[28][needs context]

Evola argued that the regime should dictate to the Catholic Church, not negotiate with it, and warned in Critica fascista in 1927 that allowing the church independent power would make fascism a "laughable revolution".[130] In 1928, he wrote that fascists had made "the most absurd of all errors" through entente with Christianity and the church.[131] He also opposed the futurism that Italian society was aligned with, along with the "plebeian" nature of the movement.[28]: 86  He opined that Mussolini should have disbanded his party after 1922 and become a loyal advisor to King Victor Emmanuel III instead.[128] Accordingly, Evola launched the journal La Torre (The Tower) in 1930, to advocate for a more elitist social order. He wrote in La Torre, "We would like a fascism more radical, more intrepid, a truly absolute fascism, made of pure force, inaccessible to any compromise."[88] Evola's ideas were poorly received by the contemporary fascist mainstream.[107] Evola wrote that Mussolini's censors had repressed La Torre, which lasted five months and ten issues; in Drake's words, Italian fascism "had as little tolerance for opposition on the right as on the left".[124] Regardless, a few years later in 1934, Evola was put in charge of the cultural page of the influential radical fascist newspaper Il Regime Fascista, a position he held until 1943.[121][123][124]

Evola developed a line of argument, closely related to the spiritual orientation of Traditionalist writers such as René Guénon and the political concerns of the European authoritarian right.[132] Autobiographical remarks by Evola allude to his having worked for the Sicherheitsdienst, the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party.[5][133]

In May 1951, Evola was arrested and charged with promoting the revival of the Fascist Party, and of glorifying Fascism. Evola declared that he was not a Fascist but was instead "superfascista" (lit.'superfascist'). He was acquitted of all charges.[8]

Fascist Italy[edit]

Scholars disagree about why Benito Mussolini embraced racist ideology in 1938—some have written that Mussolini was more motivated by political considerations than ideology when he introduced antisemitic legislation in Italy.[134] Other scholars have rejected the argument that the racial ideology of Italian fascism could be attributed solely to Nazi influence.[135] A more recent interpretation is that Mussolini was frustrated by the slow pace of fascist transformation and, by 1938, had adopted increasingly radical measures including a racial ideology. Aaron Gillette has written that "Racism would become the key driving force behind the creation of the new fascist man, the uomo fascista."[136]

Mussolini read Evola's Synthesis of the Doctrine of Race in August 1941, and met with Evola to offer him his praise. Evola later recounted that Mussolini had found in his work a uniquely Roman form of Fascist racism distinct from that found in Nazi Germany. With Mussolini's backing, Evola started preparing the launch of a minor journal Sangue e Spirito (Blood and Spirit) which never appeared. While not always in agreement with German racial theorists, Evola travelled to Germany in February 1942 and obtained support for German collaboration on Sangue e Spirito from "key figures in the German racial hierarchy."[73] Fascists appreciated the palingenetic value of Evola's "proof" "that the true representatives of the state and the culture of ancient Rome were people of the Nordic race."[73] Evola eventually became Italy's leading racial philosopher.[9]

Evola blended Sorelianism with Mussolini's eugenics agenda. Evola has written that "The theory of the Aryo-Roman race and its corresponding myth could integrate the Roman idea proposed, in general, by fascism, as well as give a foundation to Mussolini's plan to use his state as a means to elevate the average Italian and to enucleate in him a new man."[137]

Third Reich[edit]

Title page of Heidnischer Imperialismus (1933), the German edition of Julius Evola's book Imperialismo Pagano (1928).

Finding Italian fascism "too compromising" (in Goodrick-Clarke's words), Evola sought more recognition in Nazi Germany. He began lecturing there in 1934.[11] He described Berlin's Herrenklub, associated with the Conservative Revolution aristocracy, as his "natural habitat".[138] His considerable amount of time in Germany in 1937 and 1938 included a series of lectures to the German–Italian Society in 1938.[73][11] Evola appreciated what he called Nazism's "attempt to create a kind of new political-military Order with precise qualifictions of race", and believed that the Nazis' brand of fascism had taken its traditionalist thinkers seriously.[139] Evola thought far more highly of Adolf Hitler than Mussolini,[139][4] although he had reservations about Hitler's völkisch nationalism.[61] Evola wanted a spiritual unity between Italy and Germany and an Axis victory in Europe.[4] Evola admired Heinrich Himmler, whom he knew personally.[73] Evola took issue with Nazi populism and biological materialism. SS authorities initially rejected Evola's ideas as supranational and aristocratic though he was better received by members of the conservative revolutionary movement.[11] The Nazi Ahnenerbe reported that many considered his ideas to be pure "fantasy" which ignored "historical facts".[73] Himmler's Schutzstaffel ("SS") kept a dossier on Evola—dossier document AR-126 described his plans for a "Roman-Germanic Imperium" as "utopian" and described him as a "reactionary Roman," whose goal was an "insurrection of the old aristocracy against the modern world." The document recommended that the SS "stop his effectiveness in Germany" and provide him with no support, particularly because of his desire to create a "secret international order".[140][141][142]

Despite this opposition, Evola was able to establish political connections with pan-Europeanist elements inside the Reich Security Main Office.[61] He subsequently ascended to the inner circles of Nazism as the influence of pan-European advocates overtook that of Völkisch proponents, due to military contingencies.[61] Evola wrote the article Reich and Imperium as Elements in the New European Order for the Nazi-backed journal European Review.[61] He spent World War II working for the Sicherheitsdienst.[61] The Sicherheitsdienst bureau Amt VII, a Reich Security Main Office research library, helped Evola acquire arcane occult and Masonic texts.[143][45][61]

Italian Fascism went into decline when, in 1943, Mussolini was deposed and imprisoned. At this point, Evola fled to Berlin in Nazi Germany with the help of the Sicherheitsdienst.[61][144] Although not a member of the National Fascist Party, and despite his apparent problems with the fascist regime, Evola was one of the first people to greet Mussolini when the latter was broken out of prison by Otto Skorzeny in September 1943.[145] After the meeting, at Adolf Hitler's Wolf's Lair, Evola involved himself in Mussolini's Italian Social Republic (Republic of Salò).[61][11][139] He returned to Rome in 1943 to organize a radical right group called the Movimento per la Rinascita dell'Italia, but fled to Vienna in 1944 when the Allies took Rome.[139]

In Vienna, Evola studied Masonic and Jewish documents confiscated by the Nazis, and worked with the SS and fascist leaders on recruiting an army to resist the Allies' advances.[144][11] It was Evola's custom to walk around the city during bombing raids in order to better "ponder his destiny". During one such aerial bombardment in 1945, a shell fragment damaged his spinal cord and he became paralysed from the waist down, remaining so for the rest of his life.[7][139]

About the alliance during World War II between Allies and the Soviet Union, Evola wrote:

The democratic powers repeated the error of those who think they can use the forces of subversion for their own ends without cost. They do not know that, by a fatal logic, when exponents of two different grades of subversion meet or cross paths, the one representing the more developed grade will take over in the end.[146][edition needed][147]

Postwar and later years[edit]

Julius Evola – Směrnice (2015), the Czech translation of his book Orientamenti (1950).

Evola, partially paralysed after the Soviet bombing raid in Vienna in 1945, returned to postwar Rome by 1950, after being treated for his injuries in Austria.[148][139][4]

Ferraresi wrote that Evola was "the guru" for generations of radical right Italian militants, through his writings and youth groups.[123] "The political model Evola selected after 1945 was neither Mussolini nor Hitler," Wolff writes; instead, in post-World War II conversations with neo-fascists, Evola would reference the Nazi SS, the Spanish Falange, Codreanu's Romanian Legion, Knut Hamsun, Vidkun Quisling, Léon Degrelle, Drieu La Rochelle, Robert Brasillach, Maurice Bardèche, Charles Maurras, Plato (particularly The Republic), Dante (particularly De Monarchia), Joseph de Maistre, Donoso Cortés, Otto von Bismarck, Klemens von Metternich, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Robert Michels.[149][144] He wrote for publications of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement (MSI) but never joined the party.[150] Adkins wrote that the MSI "claimed him as their philosopher-king, but he barely tolerated their attention".[4]

Evola continued his work in esotericism, writing a number of books and articles on sex magic and various other esoteric studies, including The Yoga of Power: Tantra, Shakti, and the Secret Way (1949), Eros and the Mysteries of Love: The Metaphysics of Sex (1958), and Meditations on the Peaks: Mountain Climbing as Metaphor for the Spiritual Quest (1974). He also wrote his two explicitly political books Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist (1953), Ride the Tiger: A Survival Manual for the Aristocrats of the Soul (1961), and his autobiography,[61] The Path of Cinnabar (1963). He also expanded upon critiques of American civilisation and materialism, as well as increasing American influence in Europe, collected in the posthumous anthology Civiltà Americana.[151]

Evola was arrested along with thirty-six others in April 1951 by the Political Office of the Rome Police Headquarters and charged on suspicion that he was an ideologist of the militant neofascist organisation Fasci di Azione Rivoluzionaria (FAR), after attempted bombings in 1949-50 were linked to Evola's circle.[152][153] Evola's charges were glorifying fascism and promoting the revival of the Fascist Party.[154] His lawyer was Francesco Carnelutti.[citation needed] He was carried into the courtroom on a stretcher.[155] Defending himself at trial, Evola said that his work belonged to a long tradition of anti-democratic writers who could be linked to fascism—at least fascism interpreted according to certain Evolian criteria—but who could not be identified with the Fascist regime under Mussolini. Evola then denied being a fascist and instead referred to himself as "superfascista" (lit.'superfascist'). Concerning this statement, historian Elisabetta Cassina Wolff wrote that it is unclear whether this meant he was placing himself "above or beyond Fascism".[154] The judges, who themselves had served during the fascist era, ruled that Evola could not be held responsible for the crimes. Evola was acquitted of all charges on 20 November 1951. Of the 36 other defendants, 13 received prison sentences.[154][156]

While trying to distance himself from Nazism, Evola wrote in 1955 that the Nuremberg trials were a farce.[157] Evola also made an effort to differentiate his caste based aristocratic state from totalitarianism, preferring the concept of the "organic" state, which he put forth in his text Men Among the Ruins, as well as in his autodifesa.[158] Evola sought to develop a strategy for the implementation of a "conservative revolution" in post-World War II Europe. He rejected nationalism, advocating instead for a European Imperium, which could take various forms according to local conditions, but should be "organic, hierarchical, anti-democratic, and anti-individual".[159] Evola endorsed Francis Parker Yockey's neo-fascist manifesto Imperium, but said Yockey had a "superficial" understanding of what was immediately possible.[61] Evola believed that his conception of neo-fascist Europe could best be implemented by an elite of "superior" men who operated outside normal politics.[61] He dreamt that such a "New Order" of aristocracy might seize power from above during a democratic crisis.[160]

Evola's occult ontology exerted influence over post-war neo-fascism.[73] After 1945, Evola was considered the most important Italian theoretician of the conservative revolutionary movement[8] and the "chief ideologue" of Italy's post-war radical right.[9] According to Jacob Christiansen Senholt, Evola's most significant post-war political texts are Orientamenti and Men Among the Ruins.[161] In the opening phrase in the first edition of Men Among the Ruins, Evola said:

Our adversaries would undoubtedly want us, in a Christian spirit, under the banner of progress or reform, having been struck on one cheek to turn the other. Our principle is different: "Do to others what they would like to do to you: but do it to them first.[162]

In Men Among the Ruins, Evola defines the Fourth Estate as being the last stage in the cyclical development of the social elite, the first beginning with a spiritual elite of divine right.[163] Expanding the concept in an essay in 1950, the Fourth State according to Evola would be characterised by "the collectivist civilization... the communist society of the faceless-massman".[164][165]

Orientamenti was a text against "national fascism"—instead, it advocated for a European Community modelled on the principles of the Nazis' Waffen-SS, which had mustered international forces.[61][166] The Italian neo-fascist group Ordine Nuovo adopted Orientamenti as a guide for action in postwar Italy.[167] Evola praised Ordine Nouvo as the only Italian group that had "doctrinally had held firm without descending to compromise".[168] The European Liberation Front of Francis Parker Yockey called Evola "Italy's greatest living authoritarian philosopher" in the April 1951 issue of its publication Frontfighter.[61]

Evola spent his postwar years in his Rome apartment.[11] He died unmarried on 11 June 1974 in Rome from congestive heart failure.[169] His ashes, per his will, were deposited in a hole cut in a glacier on Monte Rosa in the Pennine Alps.[170]

Political influence[edit]

At one time Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, the Nazi Grail seeker Otto Rahn, and the Romanian fascist sympathiser and religious historian Mircea Eliade admired Evola.[171][143][172][61] After World War II, Evola's writings continued to influence many European far-right political, racist and neo-fascist movements. He is widely translated in French, Spanish, partly in German, and mostly in Hungarian (the largest number of his translated works).[173] Franco Ferraresi described Evola in 1987 as "possibly the most important intellectual figure for the Radical Right in contemporary Europe";[138] similarly in 2004, Atkins described him as "the leading philosopher of the European neo-fascist movement".[4]

Giuliano Salierni, who was an activist in the neo-Fascist Italian Social Movement during the early 1950s, later recalled Evola's calls to violence, along with Evola's reminiscences about Nazis such as Joseph Goebbels.[11][174] Roberto Fiore and his colleagues in the early 1980s helped the National Front's "Political Soldiers" forge a militant elitist philosophy based on Evola's "most militant tract", The Aryan Doctrine of Battle and Victory. The Aryan Doctrine called for a "Great Holy War" that would be fought for spiritual renewal and fought in parallel to the physical "Little Holy War" against perceived enemies.[11]

Richard Drake wrote that Evola advocated for terrorism.[175] Peter Merkl noted that Evola's advocacy of force was part of his appeal to the radical right.[176] Wolff wrote: "The debate around his 'moral and political' responsibility for terrorist actions perpetrated by right-wing extremist groups in Italy between 1969 and 1980 began as soon as Evola died in 1974 and have not yet come to an end."[144] Giorgio Almirante referred to him as "our Marcuse—only better."[177] According to one leader of the neofascist "black terrorist" Ordine Nuovo, "Our work since 1953 has been to transpose Evola's teachings into direct political action."[178] Franco Freda and Mario Tuti reprinted Evola's most militant texts.[179] Umberto Eco's 1995 essay "Ur-Fascism" referred to Evola as the "most influential theoretical source of the theories of the new Italian right", and as "one of the most respected fascist gurus".[180]

Radicals of the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR) helped spread Evola's philosophy in far-right circles abroad after fleeing Italy in the wake of the terrorist bombing of the Bologna railway station in 1980; some influenced Britain's National Front.[181] But outside Italy, France and Germany, Evola was not well known until around 1990 when he received wider English language publication, according to Furlong.[148]

The far-right English politician and orator Jonathan Bowden gave lectures on Evola's philosophy.[third-party source needed]

Evola's Imperialismo Pagano (1933) was translated by the Russian radical-right Eurasianist Aleksandr Dugin in 1981.[182] Dugin has said that in his youth he was "deeply inspired" by Guénon's and Evola's Traditionalism.[1]

The Greek neo-Nazi party Golden Dawn includes his works on its suggested reading list, and the leader of Jobbik, the Hungarian nationalist party, admires Evola and wrote an introduction to his works.[171]

References to Evola are widespread in the alt-right movement.[183]

Works[edit]

Books
Collections
Articles and pamphlets
Works edited and/or translated by Evola
  • Tao Tê Ching: Il libro della via e della virtù (1923; The Book of the Way and Virtue). Second edition: Il libro del principio e della sua azione (1959; The Book of the Primary Principle and of Its Action).
  • La guerra occulta: armi e fasi dell'attacco ebraico-massonico alla tradizione europea by Emmanuel Malynski and Léon de Poncins (1939) – English translation: The Occult War: The Judeo-Masonic Plot to Conquer the World. Logik Förlag. 2015. ISBN 9789187339356.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Weitzman 2021, p. 104.
  2. ^ "Evola cogn.". Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia. Dizionario d'Ortografia e di Pronunzia (DOP) (in Italian). Rai Libri. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  3. ^ Ferraresi 2012, pp. 43–44.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Atkins 2004, p. 89.
  5. ^ a b Coogan 1999, p. 315f.
  6. ^ H. T. Hansen, 'Preface to the American Edition', in Julius Evola, Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-1-620-55858-4 2018 pp-1-104, p.5. This is deduced by remarks by Evola suggesting he was an active agent for the Sicherheitsdienst, remarks that Philippe Baillet, his French translator, believes refer to the fact that the Sicherheitsdienst had been set up within the SS and had a remit to cover cultural matters, before it actually assumed a later role in Nazi counterespionage.
  7. ^ a b Guido Stucco, "Translator's Introduction," in Evola, The Yoga of Power, pp. ix–xv
  8. ^ a b c Wolff 2016.
  9. ^ a b c Payne, Stanley G. (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7.
  10. ^ Coogan 1999, p. 330.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2003). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press. pp. 52–71. ISBN 978-0-8147-3155-0.
  12. ^ Romm, Jake. "Meet the Philosopher Who's a Favorite of Steve Bannon and Mussolini". The Forward. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  13. ^ Horowitz, Jason (11 February 2017). "Thinker loved by fascists like Mussolini is on Stephen Bannon's reading list". BostonGlobe.com. New York Times. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Birth records of Rome for the year 1898" (in Italian). Archivio di Stato di Roma. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  15. ^ "Birth records of Cinisi for the year 1854" (in Italian). Archivio di Stato di Palermo. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  16. ^ "Birth records of Cinisi for the year 1865" (in Italian). Archivio di Stato di Palermo. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  17. ^ Marriage records of Cinisi for the year 1892, National Archives of Palermo
  18. ^ "Birth records of Rome for the year 1895". Portale Antenati (in Italian). National Archives of Rome. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  19. ^ Skorupski 2005, p. 11.
  20. ^ a b c d Furlong 2011, p. 2.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Rose, Matthew (2021). A World after Liberalism: Philosophers of the Radical Right. New Haven. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-300-26308-4. OCLC 1255236096.
  22. ^ de Turris, Gianfranco. "Il barone immaginario" (in Italian). Milan: Ugo Mursia Editore. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  23. ^ "Volume 788". Catalogus Baronum. 788: 143.
  24. ^ a b c d Furlong 2011, p. 3.
  25. ^ Evola 1974, p. 13.
  26. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 4.
  27. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 32.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g Gregor, A. James (2006). The Search for Neofascism: The Use and Abuse of Social Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521676397.
  29. ^ Wolff 2014, pp. 258–273.
  30. ^ a b c Furlong 2011, pp. 3–4.
  31. ^ Evola 1974, p. 10.
  32. ^ a b Drake 1986, p. 63.
  33. ^ Evola 1974, p. 11.
  34. ^ Skorupski 2005, p. 13.
  35. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 15.
  36. ^ a b c d Drake 1986, p. 64.
  37. ^ a b c Ferraresi 2012, pp. 44–45.
  38. ^ Rose 2021, pp. 47–48.
  39. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 13.
  40. ^ Ebeling 2007, p. 138.
  41. ^ Forshaw 2016, p. 351.
  42. ^ Forshaw 2016, p. 354.
  43. ^ Magee 2008, p. 200.
  44. ^ Coogan 1999, p. 296f.
  45. ^ a b c d e T. Skorupski. The Buddhist Forum, Volume 4. Routledge, 2005, pp. 11–20
  46. ^ a b Gary Lachman. Politics and the Occult: The Left, the Right, and the Radically Unseen. Quest Books, 2012. p. 215
  47. ^ Kathleen Taylor. Sir John Woodroffe, Tantra and Bengal: 'An Indian Soul in a European Body?' . Routledge, 2012. p. 135
  48. ^ Richard K. Payne. Tantric Buddhism in East Asia. Simon and Schuster, 2006. p. 229
  49. ^ a b c d e Lycourinos, Damon Zacharias, ed. (2012). Occult traditions. Numen Books. ISBN 9780987158130. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  50. ^ Rose 2021, p. 51.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i Thomas Sheehan. Myth and Violence: The Fascism of Julius Evola and Alain de Benoist. Social Research, XLVIII, 1 (Spring, 1981). 45–73
  52. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 31.
  53. ^ Cologero (6 July 2014). "Julius Evola on Giovanni Gentile — Part 1". Gornahoor. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  54. ^ a b Furlong 2011, p. 5.
  55. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2001, pp. 55–56.
  56. ^ Furlong 2011, pp. 5–6.
  57. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 87.
  58. ^ Drury 2004, p. 96.
  59. ^ LewisMelton 1992, p. 276.
  60. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 77.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Coogan, Kevin (1999). Dreamer of the Day: Francis Parker Yockey and the Postwar Fascist International. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia. ISBN 9781570270390. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  62. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 88.
  63. ^ a b c d Arthur Versluis. Magic and Mysticism: An Introduction to Western Esoteric Traditions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007. p. 144-145
  64. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 43.
  65. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 121.
  66. ^ Drake 2021.
  67. ^ Franco Ferraresi. Threats to Democracy: The Radical Right in Italy after the War. Princeton University Press, 2012. p. 220
  68. ^ a b c Coogan 1999, p. 359.
  69. ^ R. Ben-Ghiat, M. Fuller. Italian Colonialism. Springer, 2016. p. 149
  70. ^ a b Annalisa Merelli. "Steve Bannon's interest in a thinker who inspired fascism exposes the misogyny of the alt-right". Quartz. 22 February 2017
  71. ^ MeltonBaumann 2010, p. 1085.
  72. ^ a b c Coogan 1999, p. 358.
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h Franco Ferraresi (2012). Threats to Democracy: The Radical Right in Italy after the War. Princeton University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4008-2211-9.
  74. ^ Arad, Roy (3 May 2018). "How an Israeli Bookstore in Berlin Ended Up Accused of Nazi Recruitment". Haaretz. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  75. ^ Coogan 1999, p. 343.
  76. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 123.
  77. ^ Conner, Randy P.; Sparks, David Hatfield; Sparks, Mariya (1997). Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Lore. Cassell. p. 136.
  78. ^ Evola 1958, p. 3.
  79. ^ a b Furlong 2011, p. 40.
  80. ^ a b c Ferraresi 2012, p. 46.
  81. ^ Rota (2008). Intellettuali, dittatura, razzismo di stato. FrancoAngeli. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-88-568-2094-2.
  82. ^ Cassata, Francisco (2011). Building the New Man: Eugenics, Racial Science and Genetics in Twentieth-century Italy. Central European University Press. ISBN 9789639776838.
  83. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 21.
  84. ^ a b Wolff 2016, p. 480.
  85. ^ Coogan 1999, p. 314.
  86. ^ Lachman, Gary (2008). Politics and the occult : the left, the right, and the radically unseen (1st ed.). Wheaton, Ill.: Quest Books/Theosophical Pub. House. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-8356-0857-2. OCLC 223915524.
  87. ^ Drake 1986, pp. 70–71.
  88. ^ a b Peter H. Merkl. Political Violence and Terror: Motifs and Motivations. University of California Press, 1986. p. 67, 85
  89. ^ Furlong 2011.
  90. ^ A. James Gregor, Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
  91. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 150.
  92. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 119.
  93. ^ a b Horst Junginger. The Study of Religion Under the Impact of Fascism. Brill, 2008. p. 136
  94. ^ Oren Nimni and Nathan J. Robinson. Alan Dershowitz Takes Anti-Semitism Very Seriously Indeed. Current Affairs. 16 November 2016
  95. ^ Julius Evola, "La tragedia della 'Guardia di Ferro" in La vita italiana 309 (December 1938), quoted in Franco Ferraresi, "Julius Evola: Tradition, Reaction, and the Radical Right," in European Journal of Sociology 28 (1987), 107–51 (pp. 129–30).
  96. ^ Wolff 2016, p. 483.
  97. ^ Drake 1986, p. 69-71.
  98. ^ Gary Lachman. Politics and the Occult: The Left, the Right, and the Radically Unseen. Quest Books, 2012. p. 217
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  101. ^ a b Furlong 2011, p. 42.
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  103. ^ Drake, Richard (2021). The revolutionary mystique and terrorism in contemporary Italy (Second ed.). Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 978-0-253-05714-3. OCLC 1221015144.
  104. ^ Coogan 1999, p. 293.
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  107. ^ a b c Mark Sedgwick. Against the Modern World: Traditionalism and the Secret Intellectual History of the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 2009. p. 105
  108. ^ Barber, Richard (2004). The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief. Harvard University Press. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-0674018150.
  109. ^ Evola, Julius (November 1996). Mystery of the Grail. Translated by Hansen, H. T. Inner Traditions. pp. 172–173. ISBN 0892815736. This Temple should be identified with the "Sacred Empire" or "Empire of the World" was mentioned so often in the so-called Protocols of the Elders of Zion, which contain the myth of a detailed conspiracy against the traditional European world. I say "myth" on purpose, thus leaving open the issue of the authenticity or falsehood of the document, which is often exploited by a vulgar anti-Semitism. The fact remains that this document, like many other similar ones, has a symptomatic value, [...] Therefore, regardless of their authenticity, of whether they are totally conjured up, they have caught some vibrations in the air that history itself has confirmed. It is exactly in the Protocols that we see the reemergence of the idea of a universal future empire and of organizations that work underground for its advent, though in a counterfeit that I do not hesitate to call "satanic," because what is effectively happening is the destruction and the uprooting of all that is traditional, of the values of personality and true spirituality.
  110. ^ Barber, Richard (2004). The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief. Harvard University Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0674018150.
  111. ^ Skorupski 2005, p. 9.
  112. ^ Harry Oldmeadow. Journeys East: 20th Century Western Encounters with Eastern Religious Traditions. World Wisdom, Inc, 2004. p. 369
  113. ^ Donald S. Lopez. Curators of the Buddha: The Study of Buddhism Under Colonialism. University of Chicago Press, 1995. p. 177
  114. ^ Drake 1986, pp. 64–65.
  115. ^ Weitzman, Mark (2020). ""One Knows the Tree by the Fruit That It Bears:" Mircea Eliade's Influence on Current Far-Right Ideology". Religions. 11 (5): 250. doi:10.3390/rel11050250.
  116. ^ Furlong 2011, pp. 96, 103.
  117. ^ Franco Ferraresi, 'Julius Evola: Tradition, reaction, and the radical right', European Journal of Sociology, vol. 28, no. 1, 1987, 107–51 (131).
  118. ^ Wolff 2016, p. 490.
  119. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, pp. 52–71.
  120. ^ Wolff 2014, pp. 259–260.
  121. ^ a b Wolff, Elisabetta Cassina (2014). "Apolitìa and Tradition in Julius Evola as Reaction to Nihilism". European Review. 22 (2): 258–273. doi:10.1017/S106279871400009X. ISSN 1062-7987. S2CID 144821530.
  122. ^ a b Drake 1986, p. 66-67.
  123. ^ a b c d e f Ferraresi 2012, p. 44.
  124. ^ a b c d Drake 1986, p. 66.
  125. ^ Evola, Julius (2006). I testi de La vita italiana: 1939-1943 [The texts of La vita italiana: 1939-1943] (in Italian). Edizioni di Ar. ISBN 9788889515136.
  126. ^ Lennart Svensson. Ernst Jünger – A Portrait. Manticore Books, 2016. p. 202
  127. ^ Evola, Julius (2009). The path of cinnabar: an intellectual autobiography. Arktos. p. 177. ISBN 978-1907166020. OCLC 985108552.
  128. ^ a b Drake 1986, p. 68.
  129. ^ H.T. Hansen, "A Short Introduction to Julius Evola" in Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World, p xviii.
  130. ^ Drake, Richard (1988). "Julius Evola, Radical Fascism, and the Lateran Accords". The Catholic Historical Review. 74 (3): 403–419. ISSN 0008-8080.
  131. ^ Drake 1986, p. 69.
  132. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 14.
  133. ^ H. T. Hansen, 'Preface to the American Edition', in Julius Evola, Men Among the Ruins: Post-War Reflections of a Radical Traditionalist, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 978-1-620-55858-4 2018 pp-1-104, p.5. This is deduced by remarks by Evola suggesting he was an active agent for the Sicherheitsdienst, remarks that Philippe Baillet, his French translator, believes refer to the fact that the Sicherheitsdienst had been set up within the SS and had a remit to cover cultural matters, before it actually assumed a later role in Nazi counterespionage.
  134. ^ See Renzo de Felice, Storia degli ebrei; A. James Gregor; Meir Michaelis, Mussolini and the Jews; contra Aaron Gillette, Racial Theories in Fascist Italy, Ch. 4
  135. ^ See Luigi Preti (1968) for discussion of miscegenation; Gene Bernardini (1977) for discussion of German influence
  136. ^ Gillette, Racial Theories, pp. 51–53
  137. ^ Gillette, Racial Theories, p. 54
  138. ^ a b Ferraresi, Franco (1987). "Julius Evola: Tradition, reaction, and the Radical Right". European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes de Sociologie / Europäisches Archiv für Soziologie. 28 (1): 107–151. doi:10.1017/S0003975600005415. ISSN 0003-9756. JSTOR 23997444. S2CID 143934026.
  139. ^ a b c d e f Drake 1986, p. 67.
  140. ^ Coogan 1999, p. 320.
  141. ^ H.T. Hansen, "A Short Introduction to Julius Evola" in Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World, p. xviii.
  142. ^ A. James Gregor and Andreas Umland. Erwägen Wissen Ethik, 15: 3 & 4 (2004), pp. 424–429, 591–595; vol. 16: 4 (2005), pp. 566–572 Dugin Not a Fascist?.
  143. ^ a b Nigel Graddon. Otto Rahn and the Quest for the Grail: The Amazing Life of the Real Indiana Jones. SCB Distributors, 2013
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  145. ^ Roger Griffin, Matthew Feldman. Fascism: Post-war fascisms. Taylor & Francis, 2004. p. 223
  146. ^ Evola, Rivolta contro il mondo moderno p. 385.
  147. ^ FURLONG, P. Social and Political Thought of Julius Evola, London: Routledge, 2011, p. 50. Translation from the Italian by Paul Furlong
  148. ^ a b Furlong 2011, p. 1.
  149. ^ Julius Evola, 'La legge contro le idee', Meridiano d'Italia, 23 September 1951, in Evola, I testi del Meridiano d'Italia, 103–4; and Julius Evola, 'Il coraggio di dirsi antidemocratici non equivale necessariamente a dichiararsi fascisti', La rivolta ideale, 17 January 1952, in Evola, I testi de La rivolta ideale, 56–8.
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  152. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 92.
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  154. ^ a b c Wolff 2016, p. 491.
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  156. ^ "Evola al processo ai F.A.R.: premessa" [Evola at the F.A.R. trial: premise]. RigenerAzione Evola (in Italian). 27 September 2016.
  157. ^ Evola |, Autore: Julius (1 January 2000). "Il significato delle SS. Ordini ed élites politiche". Centro Studi La Runa (in Italian). Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  158. ^ Furlong 2011, p. 154.
  159. ^ Furlong 2011, pp. 63, 65.
  160. ^ Rose 2012, pp. 54–56.
  161. ^ Senholt 2013, p. 245.
  162. ^ Evola, Julius., Gli Uomini e le Rovine, Roma: Edizioni dell'Ascia, 1953, p. 16.
  163. ^ "Contemplations on the Concept of Spiritual Aristocracy". www.cakravartin.com. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
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  165. ^ Evola, Julius (17 September 2015). A Traditionalist Confronts Fascism. Arktos Media. ISBN 9781910524022.
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  167. ^ Marlene Laruelle. Eurasianism and the European Far Right: Reshaping the Europe–Russia Relationship. Lexington Books, 2015. p. 102
  168. ^ Drake 1986, p. 72.
  169. ^ Luca Lo Bianco (1993). "EVOLA, Giulio Cesare Andrea" [Biographical Dictionary of Italians]. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (in Italian). Vol. 43. Treccani. Retrieved 23 October 2018. Morì a Roma l'11 giugno 1974 e le ceneri, per sua volontà, furono sepolte sul Monte Rosa. [He died in Rome on 11 June 1974 and the ashes, by his will, were buried on Monte Rosa.]
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  171. ^ a b Horowitz, Jason (11 February 2017). "Thinker loved by fascists like Mussolini is on Stephen Bannon's reading list". The Boston Globe. The New York Times. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
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  173. ^ "Metaphysicum et Politicum" (PDF). pp. 130–154.
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  175. ^ Drake 1986, p. 79.
  176. ^ Merkl 2021, p. 3.
  177. ^ Thomas Sheehan. Italy: Terror on the Right. The New York Review of Books, Volume 27, Number 21 & 22, 22 January 1981
  178. ^ Quoted in Ferraresi, Franco. "The Radical Right in Postwar Italy." Politics & Society. 1988 16:71-119. (p.84)
  179. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2001, p. 68.
  180. ^ Eco, Umberto. "Ur-Fascism". The New York Review of Books, Vol. 42, No. 11 (1995), accessed 12 February 2017.
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  186. ^ Spicer, Kevin P.; Carter-Chand, Rebecca (15 January 2022). Religion, Ethnonationalism, and Antisemitism in the Era of the Two World Wars. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-2280-1020-3.
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Bibliography

(Publications by and about Julius Evola in the catalogue Helveticat of the Swiss National Library:)

External links[edit]