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Global Gender Gap Report Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Gender_Gap_Report

Cover of the 2008 report

The Global Gender Gap Report was first published in 2006 by the World Economic Forum. The Global Gender Gap Index is an index designed to measure gender equality.[1]

It "assesses countries on how well they are dividing their resources and opportunities among their male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources and opportunities," the Report says.[2] "By providing a comprehensible framework for assessing and comparing global gender gaps and by revealing those countries that are role models in dividing these resources equitably between women and men, the Report serves as a catalyst for greater awareness as well as greater exchange between policymakers."[2]

Methodology[edit]

The report's Gender Gap Index ranks countries according to calculated gender gap between women and men in four key areas: health, education, economy and politics to gauge the state of gender equality in a country.

The report examines four overall areas of inequality between men and women in 130 economies around the globe, over 93% of the world's population:

  • Economic participation and opportunity – outcomes on salaries, participation levels and access to high-skilled employment
  • Educational attainment – outcomes on access to basic and higher level education
  • Political empowerment – outcomes on representation in decision-making structures
  • Health and survival – outcomes on life expectancy and sex ratio. In this case parity is not assumed, there are assumed to be fewer female births than male (944 female for every 1,000 males), and men are assumed to die younger. Provided that women live at least six percent longer than men, parity is assumed. But if it is less than six percent it counts as a gender gap.[3]

Thirteen out of the fourteen variables used to create the index are from publicly available "hard data" indicators from international organizations, such as the International Labour Organization, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization.[4]

Upper limiting value of the Gender Gap Index[edit]

1. Economic participation and opportunity
 ratio limit[5] weight[6] value
* Labour force participation 1.0 0.199 0.199
* Wage equality for similar work 1.0 0.310 0.310
* Estimated earned income 1.0 0.221 0.221
* Legislators, senior officials and managers 1.0 0.149 0.149
* Professional and technical workers 1.0 0.121 0.121
  sum 1.0 1.0
2. Educational attainment
 ratio limit[5] weight[6] value
* Literacy rate 1.0 0.191 0.191
* Enrolment in primary education 1.0 0.459 0.459
* Enrolment in secondary education 1.0 0.229 0.229
* Enrolment in tertiary education 1.0 0.121 0.121
  sum 1.0 1.0
3. Health and survival
 ratio limit[5] weight[6] value
* Sex ratio at birth 0.944[7] 0.693 0.654
* Healthy life expectancy 1.060[8] 0.307 0.325
  sum 1.0 0.980
4. Political empowerment
 ratio limit[5] weight[6] value
* Women in parliament 1.0 0.310 0.310
* Women in ministerial positions 1.0 0.247 0.247
* Years with female head of state 1.0 0.443 0.443
  sum 1.0 1.0
Compilation
1. Economic participation and opportunity 1.000
2. Educational attainment 1.000
3. Health and survival 0.980
4. Political empowerment 1.000
sum   3.980

Gender Gap Index: 3.98 / 4 = 0.9949

This is the upper limiting value of the Gender Gap Index (limes superior) for the female-to-male ratio and for the male-to-female ratio.

WEF Global Gender Gap Index rankings[edit]

The highest possible score is 1.0 (equality or better for women, except for lifespan (106% or better for women) and gender parity at birth (94.4% or better for women[9]) and the lowest possible score is 0. Data for some countries are unavailable.[10][11][12] The three highest-ranking countries have closed over 84% of their gender gaps, while the lowest-ranking country has closed only a little over 50% of its gender gap.

Global Gender Gap Report 2020
Location Year [note 1]
Country Region 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015[13] 2016[14] 2017 2018 2020[15] 2021[16] 2022
 Afghanistan South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.444 0.435
 Albania Europe 0.6607 0.6685 0.6591 0.6601 0.6726 0.6748 0.6655 0.6412 0.6869 0.701 0.704 0.728 0.734 0.769 0.770 0.787
 Algeria Africa 0.6018 0.6068 0.6111 0.6119 0.6052 0.5991 0.6112 0.5966 0.6182 0.632 0.642 0.629 0.629 0.634 0.633 0.602
 Angola Africa 0.6039 0.6034 0.6032 0.6353 0.6712 0.6624 N/A 0.6659 0.6311 0.637 0.643 0.640 0.633 0.660 0.657 0.638
 Argentina South America 0.6829 0.6982 0.7209 0.7211 0.7187 0.7236 0.7212 0.7195 0.7317 0.734 0.735 0.732 0.733 0.746 0.752 0.756
 Armenia West Asia N/A 0.6651 0.6677 0.6619 0.6669 0.6654 0.6636 0.6634 0.6622 0.668 0.669 0.677 0.678 0.684 0.673 0.698
 Australia Oceania 0.7163 0.7204 0.7241 0.7282 0.7271 0.7291 0.7294 0.7390 0.7409 0.733 0.721 0.731 0.730 0.731 0.731 0.738
 Austria Europe 0.6986 0.7060 0.7153 0.7031 0.7091 0.7165 0.7391 0.7437 0.7266 0.733 0.716 0.709 0.718 0.744 0.777 0.781
 Azerbaijan West Asia N/A 0.6781 0.6856 0.6626 0.6446 0.6577 0.6546 0.6582 0.6753 0.675 0.684 0.676 0.680 0.687 0.688 0.687
 Bahamas Central America N/A N/A N/A 0.7179 0.7128 0.7340 0.7156 0.7128 0.7269 0.728 0.729 0.743 0.741 0.720 0.725 N/A
 Bahrain West Asia 0.5894 0.5931 0.5927 0.6136 0.6217 0.6232 0.6298 0.6334 0.6261 0.644 0.615 0.632 0.627 0.629 0.632 0.632
 Bangladesh South Asia 0.6270 0.6314 0.6531 0.6526 0.6702 0.6812 0.6684 0.6848 0.6973 0.704 0.698 0.719 0.721 0.726 0.719 0.714
 Barbados Central America N/A N/A 0.7188 0.7236 0.7176 0.7170 0.7232 0.7301 0.7289 0.744 0.739 0.750 0.753 0.749 0.769 0.765
 Belarus Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.734 0.737 0.744 0.747 0.746 0.758 0.750
 Belgium Europe 0.7078 0.7198 0.7163 0.7165 0.7509 0.7531 0.7652 0.7684 0.7809 0.753 0.745 0.739 0.738 0.750 0.789 0.793
 Belize Central America N/A 0.6426 0.6610 0.6636 0.6536 0.6489 0.6465 0.6449 0.6701 0.668 0.676 0.692 0.662 0.671 0.699 0.695
 Benin Africa 0.5780 0.5656 0.5582 0.5643 0.5719 0.5832 0.6258 0.5885 N/A 0.625 0.636 0.652 0.654 0.658 0.653 0.612
 Bhutan South Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6651 0.6364 0.646 0.642 0.638 0.638 0.635 0.639 0.637
 Bolivia South America 0.6335 0.6574 0.6667 0.6693 0.6751 0.6862 0.7222 0.7340 0.7049 0.749 0.746 0.758 0.748 0.734 0.722 0.734
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.713 0.710
 Botswana Africa 0.6897 0.6797 0.6839 0.7071 0.6876 0.6832 0.6744 0.6752 0.7129 0.710 0.715 0.720 0.715 0.709 0.716 0.719
 Brazil South America 0.6543 0.6637 0.6737 0.6695 0.6655 0.6679 0.6909 0.6949 0.6941 0.686 0.687 0.684 0.681 0.691 0.695 0.696
 Brunei Darussalam Southeast Asia N/A N/A 0.6392 0.6524 0.6748 0.6787 0.6750 0.6730 0.6719 0.684 0.669 0.671 0.686 0.686 0.678 0.680
 Bulgaria Europe 0.6870 0.7085 0.7077 0.7072 0.6983 0.6987 0.7021 0.7097 0.7444 0.722 0.726 0.756 0.756 0.727 0.746 0.740
 Burkina Faso Africa 0.5854 0.5912 0.6029 0.6081 0.6162 0.6153 0.6455 0.6513 0.6500 0.651 0.64 0.646 0.629 0.635 0.651 0.659
 Burundi Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7270 0.7338 0.7397 0.7565 0.748 0.768 0.755 0.741 0.745 0.769 0.777
 Cambodia Southeast Asia 0.6291 0.6353 0.6469 0.6410 0.6482 0.6464 0.6457 0.6509 0.6520 0.662 0.658 0.676 0.683 0.694 0.685 0.690
 Cameroon Africa 0.5865 0.5919 0.6017 0.6108 0.6110 0.6073 0.6291 0.6560 N/A 0.682 0.684 0.689 0.714 0.686 0.692 0.692
 Canada North America 0.7165 0.7198 0.7136 0.7196 0.7372 0.7407 0.7381 0.7425 0.7464 0.740 0.731 0.769 0.771 0.772 0.772 0.772
 Cape Verde Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7180 0.7122 0.7133 0.717 0.729 0.686 0.702 0.725 0.716 0.736
 Chad Africa 0.5247 0.5381 0.5290 0.5417 0.5330 0.5334 0.5594 0.5588 0.5764 0.580 0.587 0.575 0.580 0.596 0.593 0.579
 Chile South America 0.6455 0.6482 0.6818 0.6884 0.7013 0.7030 0.6676 0.6670 0.6975 0.698 0.699 0.704 0.717 0.723 0.716 0.736
 China East Asia 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 0.6853 0.6908 0.6830 0.682 0.676 0.674 0.673 0.676 0.682 0.682
 Colombia South America 0.7049 0.7090 0.6944 0.6939 0.6927 0.6714 0.6901 0.7171 0.7122 0.725 0.727 0.731 0.729 0.758 0.725 0.710
 Comoros Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.631
 Costa Rica Central America 0.6936 0.7014 0.7111 0.7180 0.7194 0.7266 0.7225 0.7241 0.7165 0.732 0.736 0.727 0.749 0.782 0.786 0.796
 Côte d'Ivoire Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.5691 0.5773 0.5785 0.5814 0.5874 0.606 0.597 0.611 0.627 0.606 0.637 0.632
 Croatia Europe 0.7145 0.7210 0.6967 0.6944 0.6939 0.7006 0.7053 0.7069 0.7075 0.708 0.7 0.711 0.712 0.720 0.733 N/A
 Cuba Central America N/A 0.7169 0.7195 0.7176 0.7253 0.7394 0.7417 0.7540 0.7317 0.740 0.74 0.745 0.749 0.746 0.746 N/A
 Cyprus West Asia 0.6430 0.6522 0.6694 0.6706 0.6642 0.6567 0.6732 0.6801 0.6741 0.671 0.684 0.684 0.684 0.692 0.707 0.696
 Czech Republic Europe 0.6712 0.6718 0.6770 0.6789 0.6850 0.6789 0.6767 0.6770 0.6737 0.687 0.69 0.688 0.693 0.706 0.711 0.710
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.576 0.575
 Denmark Europe 0.7462 0.7519 0.7538 0.7628 0.7719 0.7778 0.7777 0.7779 0.8025 0.767 0.754 0.776 0.778 0.782 0.768 0.764
 Dominican Republic Central America 0.6639 0.6705 0.6744 0.6859 0.6774 0.6682 0.6659 0.6867 0.6906 0.686 0.676 0.697 0.701 0.700 0.699 0.703
 Ecuador South America 0.6433 0.6881 0.7091 0.7220 0.7072 0.7035 0.7206 0.7389 0.7455 0.738 0.726 0.724 0.729 0.729 0.739 0.743
 Egypt Africa 0.5786 0.5809 0.5832 0.5862 0.5899 0.5933 0.5975 0.5935 0.6064 0.599 0.614 0.608 0.614 0.629 0.639 0.635
 El Salvador Central America 0.6837 0.6853 0.6875 0.6939 0.6596 0.6567 0.6630 0.6609 0.6863 0.706 0.702 0.705 0.690 0.706 0.738 0.727
 Estonia Europe 0.6944 0.7008 0.7076 0.7094 0.7018 0.6983 0.6977 0.6997 0.7017 0.749 0.747 0.731 0.734 0.751 0.733 0.733
 Eswatini Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.670 0.665 0.670 N/A N/A 0.729 0.728
 Ethiopia Africa 0.5946 0.5991 0.5867 0.5948 0.6019 0.6136 0.6200 0.6198 0.6144 0.640 0.662 0.656 0.656 0.705 0.691 0.710
 Fiji Oceania N/A N/A N/A 0.6414 0.6256 0.6255 0.6285 0.6286 0.6286 0.645 N/A N/A 0.669 0.678 0.674 0.676
 Finland Europe 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 0.8451 0.8421 0.8453 0.850 0.845 0.823 0.821 0.832 0.861 0.860
 France Europe 0.6520 0.6824 0.7341 0.7331 0.7025 0.7018 0.6984 0.7089 0.7588 0.761 0.755 0.778 0.779 0.781 0.784 0.791
 Gambia, The Africa 0.6448 0.6421 0.6622 0.6752 0.6762 0.6763 0.6630 N/A N/A 0.674 0.667 0.649 0.642 0.628 0.644 0.641
 Georgia West Asia 0.6700 0.6665 0.6654 0.6680 0.6598 0.6624 0.6691 0.6750 0.6855 0.687 0.681 0.679 0.677 0.708 0.732 0.731
 Germany Europe 0.7524 0.7618 0.7394 0.7449 0.7530 0.7590 0.7629 0.7583 0.7780 0.779 0.766 0.778 0.776 0.787 0.796 0.801
 Ghana Africa 0.6653 0.6725 0.6679 0.6704 0.6782 0.6811 0.6778 0.6811 0.6661 0.704 0.705 0.695 0.688 0.673 0.666 0.672
 Greece Europe 0.6540 0.6648 0.6727 0.6662 0.6908 0.6916 0.6716 0.6782 0.6784 0.685 0.68 0.692 0.696 0.701 0.689 0.689
 Guatemala Central America 0.6067 0.6144 0.6072 0.6209 0.6238 0.6229 0.6260 0.6304 0.6821 0.667 0.666 0.667 0.668 0.666 0.655 0.664
 Guinea Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.618 0.64 0.659 0.656 0.642 0.660 0.647
 Guyana South America N/A N/A N/A 0.7108 0.7090 0.7084 0.7119 0.7085 0.7010 0.702 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.728 0.752
 Honduras Central America 0.6483 0.6661 0.6960 0.6893 0.6927 0.6945 0.6763 0.6773 0.6935 0.688 0.69 0.711 0.706 0.722 0.716 0.705
 Hungary Europe 0.6698 0.6731 0.6867 0.6879 0.6720 0.6642 0.6718 0.6742 0.6759 0.672 0.669 0.670 0.674 0.677 0.688 0.699
 Iceland Europe 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 0.8640 0.8731 0.8594 0.881 0.874 0.878 0.858 0.877 0.892 0.908
 India South Asia 0.6011 0.5936 0.6060 0.6151 0.6155 0.6190 0.6442 0.6551 0.6455 0.664 0.683 0.669 0.665 0.668 0.625 0.629
 Indonesia Southeast Asia 0.6541 0.6550 0.6473 0.6580 0.6615 0.6594 0.6591 0.6613 0.6725 0.681 0.682 0.691 0.691 0.700 0.688 0.697
 Iran West Asia 0.5803 0.5903 0.6021 0.5839 0.5933 0.5894 0.5927 0.5842 0.5811 0.580 0.587 0.583 0.589 0.584 0.582 0.576
 Iraq West Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.535 N/A
 Ireland Europe 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 0.7839 0.7823 0.7850 0.807 0.797 0.794 0.796 0.798 0.800 0.804
 Israel West Asia 0.6889 0.6965 0.6900 0.7019 0.6957 0.6926 0.6989 0.7032 0.7005 0.712 0.719 0.721 0.722 0.718 0.724 0.727
 Italy Europe 0.6456 0.6498 0.6788 0.6798 0.6765 0.6796 0.6729 0.6885 0.6973 0.726 0.719 0.692 0.706 0.707 0.721 0.720
 Jamaica Central America 0.7014 0.6925 0.6980 0.7013 0.7037 0.7028 0.7035 0.7085 0.7128 0.703 0.724 0.717 0.724 0.735 0.741 0.749
 Japan East Asia 0.6447 0.6455 0.6434 0.6447 0.6524 0.6514 0.6530 0.6498 0.6584 0.670 0.66 0.657 0.662 0.652 0.656 0.650
 Jordan West Asia 0.6109 0.6203 0.6275 0.6182 0.6048 0.6117 0.6103 0.6093 0.5968 0.593 0.603 0.604 0.605 0.623 0.683 0.639
 Kazakhstan Central Asia 0.6928 0.6983 0.6976 0.7013 0.7055 0.7010 0.7213 0.7218 0.7210 0.719 0.718 0.713 0.712 0.710 0.710 0.719
 Kenya Africa 0.6486 0.6508 0.6547 0.6512 0.6499 0.6493 0.6768 0.6803 0.7258 0.719 0.702 0.694 0.700 0.671 0.692 0.729
 Korea, Rep. East Asia 0.6157 0.6409 0.6154 0.6146 0.6342 0.6281 0.6356 0.6351 0.6403 0.651 0.649 0.650 0.657 0.672 0.687 0.689
 Kuwait West Asia 0.6341 0.6409 0.6358 0.6356 0.6318 0.6322 0.6320 0.6292 0.6457 0.646 0.624 0.679 0.630 0.650 0.621 0.632
 Kyrgyz Republic Central Asia 0.6742 0.6653 0.7045 0.7058 0.6973 0.7036 0.7013 0.6948 0.6974 0.693 0.687 0.691 0.691 0.689 0.681 0.700
 Laos Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6993 0.7044 0.713 N/A 0.703 0.748 0.731 0.750 0.733
 Latvia Europe 0.7091 0.7333 0.7397 0.7416 0.7429 0.7399 0.7572 0.7610 0.7691 0.752 0.755 0.756 0.758 0.785 0.778 0.771
 Lebanon West Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6084 0.6083 0.6030 0.6028 0.5923 0.598 0.598 0.596 0.595 0.599 0.638 0.644
 Lesotho Africa 0.6807 0.7078 0.7320 0.7495 0.7678 0.7666 0.7608 0.7530 0.7255 0.706 0.706 0.695 0.693 0.695 0.698 0.700
 Liberia Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.652 0.652 0.669 0.681 0.685 0.693 0.709
 Lithuania Europe 0.7077 0.7234 0.7222 0.7175 0.7132 0.7131 0.7191 0.7308 0.7208 0.740 0.744 0.742 0.749 0.745 0.804 0.799
 Luxembourg Europe 0.6671 0.6786 0.6802 0.6889 0.7231 0.7216 0.7439 0.7410 0.7333 0.738 0.734 0.706 0.712 0.725 0.726 0.736
 North Macedonia Europe 0.6983 0.6967 0.6914 0.6950 0.6996 0.6966 0.6968 0.7013 0.6943 0.701 0.696 0.702 0.707 0.711 0.715 0.716
 Madagascar Africa 0.6385 0.6461 0.6736 0.6732 0.6713 0.6797 0.6982 0.7016 0.7214 0.698 0.704 0.692 0.691 0.719 0.725 0.735
 Malawi Africa 0.6437 0.6480 0.6664 0.6738 0.6824 0.6850 0.7166 0.7139 0.7281 0.701 0.7 0.672 0.662 0.664 0.671 0.632
 Malaysia Southeast Asia 0.6509 0.6444 0.6442 0.6467 0.6479 0.6525 0.6539 0.6518 0.6520 0.655 0.666 0.670 0.676 0.677 0.676 0.681
 Maldives South Asia N/A 0.6350 0.6501 0.6482 0.6452 0.6480 0.6616 0.6604 0.6557 0.652 .65 0.669 0.662 0.646 0.642 0.648
 Mali Africa 0.5996 0.6019 0.6117 0.5860 0.5680 0.5752 0.5842 0.5872 0.5779 0.599 0.591 0.583 0.582 0.621 0.591 0.601
 Malta Europe 0.6518 0.6615 0.6634 0.6635 0.6695 0.6658 0.6666 0.6761 0.6707 0.668 0.664 0.682 0.686 0.693 0.703 0.703
 Mauritania Africa 0.5835 0.6022 0.6117 0.6103 0.6152 0.6164 0.6129 0.5810 0.6029 0.613 0.624 0.614 0.607 0.614 0.606 N/A
 Mauritius Africa 0.6328 0.6487 0.6466 0.6513 0.6520 0.6529 0.6547 0.6599 0.6541 0.646 0.652 0.664 0.663 0.665 0.679 0.679
 Mexico North America 0.6462 0.6441 0.6441 0.6503 0.6577 0.6604 0.6712 0.6917 0.6900 0.699 0.7 0.692 0.721 0.754 0.757 0.764
 Moldova Europe 0.7128 0.7172 0.7244 0.7104 0.7160 0.7083 0.7101 0.7037 0.7405 0.742 0.741 0.740 0.733 0.757 0.768 0.788
 Mongolia East Asia 0.6821 0.6731 0.7049 0.7221 0.7194 0.7140 0.7111 0.7204 0.7212 0.709 0.705 0.713 0.714 0.706 0.716 0.715
 Montenegro Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.689 0.681 0.693 0.706 0.710 0.732 0.732
 Morocco Africa 0.5827 0.5676 0.5757 0.5926 0.5767 0.5804 0.5833 0.5845 0.5988 0.593 0.597 0.598 0.607 0.605 0.612 0.624
 Mozambique Africa N/A 0.6883 0.7266 0.7195 0.7329 0.7251 0.7350 0.7349 0.7370 0.741 0.75 0.741 0.721 0.723 0.758 0.752
 Myanmar Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.691 0.690 0.665 0.681 0.677
 Namibia Africa 0.6864 0.7012 0.7141 0.7167 0.7238 0.7177 0.7121 0.7094 0.7219 0.760 0.765 0.777 0.789 0.784 0.809 0.807
   Nepal South Asia 0.5478 0.5575 0.5942 0.6213 0.6084 0.5888 0.6026 0.6053 0.6458 0.658 0.661 0.664 0.671 0.680 0.683 0.692
 Netherlands Europe 0.7250 0.7383 0.7399 0.7490 0.7444 0.7470 0.7659 0.7608 0.7730 0.776 0.756 0.737 0.747 0.736 0.762 0.767
 New Zealand Oceania 0.7509 0.7649 0.7859 0.7880 0.7808 0.7810 0.7805 0.7799 0.7772 0.782 0.781 0.791 0.801 0.799 0.840 0.841
 Nicaragua Central America 0.6566 0.6458 0.6747 0.7002 0.7176 0.7245 0.7697 0.7715 0.7894 0.776 0.78 0.814 0.809 0.804 0.796 0.810
 Niger Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.629 0.635
 Nigeria Africa 0.6104 0.6122 0.6339 0.6280 0.6055 0.6011 0.6315 0.6469 0.6391 0.638 0.643 0.641 0.621 0.635 0.627 0.639
 Norway Europe 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 0.8403 0.8417 0.8374 0.850 0.842 0.830 0.835 0.842 0.849 0.845
 Oman West Asia N/A 0.5903 0.5960 0.5938 0.5950 0.5873 0.5986 0.6053 0.6091 0.604 0.612 N/A 0.605 0.602 0.608 0.609
 Pakistan South Asia 0.5434 0.5509 0.5549 0.5458 0.5465 0.5583 0.5478 0.5459 0.5522 0.559 0.556 0.546 0.550 0.564 0.556 0.564
 Panama Central America 0.6935 0.6954 0.7095 0.7024 0.7072 0.7042 0.7122 0.7164 0.7195 0.772 0.721 0.722 0.722 0.730 0.737 0.743
 Papua New Guinea Oceania N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.635 N/A
 Paraguay South America 0.6556 0.6659 0.6379 0.6868 0.6804 0.6818 0.6714 0.6724 0.6890 0.666 0.676 0.678 0.672 0.683 0.702 0.707
 Peru South America 0.6619 0.6624 0.6959 0.7024 0.6895 0.6796 0.6742 0.6787 0.7198 0.683 0.687 0.719 0.720 0.714 0.721 0.749
 Philippines Southeast Asia 0.7516 0.7629 0.7568 0.7579 0.7654 0.7685 0.7757 0.7832 0.7814 0.790 0.786 0.790 0.799 0.781 0.784 0.783
 Poland Europe 0.6802 0.6756 0.6951 0.6998 0.7037 0.7038 0.7015 0.7031 0.7051 0.715 0.727 0.728 0.728 0.736 0.713 0.709
 Portugal Europe 0.6922 0.6959 0.7051 0.7013 0.7171 0.7144 0.7071 0.7056 0.7243 0.731 0.737 0.734 0.732 0.744 0.775 0.766
 Qatar West Asia N/A 0.6041 0.5948 0.5907 0.6059 0.6230 0.6264 0.6299 0.6403 0.645 0.643 0.626 0.629 0.629 0.624 0.617
 Romania Europe 0.6797 0.6859 0.6763 0.6805 0.6826 0.6812 0.6859 0.6908 0.6936 0.693 0.69 0.708 0.711 0.724 0.700 0.698
 Russia Europe 0.6770 0.6866 0.6994 0.6987 0.7036 0.7037 0.6980 0.6983 0.6927 0.694 0.691 0.696 0.701 0.706 0.708 N/A
 Rwanda Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.794 0.8 0.822 0.804 0.791 0.805 0.811
 Saudi Arabia West Asia 0.5242 0.5647 0.5537 0.5651 0.5713 0.5753 0.5731 0.5879 0.6059 0.605 0.583 0.584 0.590 0.599 0.603 0.636
 Senegal Africa N/A N/A N/A 0.6427 0.6414 0.6573 0.6657 0.6923 0.6912 0.698 0.685 0.684 0.682 0.684 0.684 0.668
 Serbia Europe N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.7037 0.7116 0.7086 0.720 0.72 0.727 0.730 0.736 0.780 0.779
 Sierra Leone Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.655 0.672
 Singapore Southeast Asia 0.6550 0.6609 0.6625 0.6664 0.6914 0.6914 0.6989 0.7000 0.7046 0.711 0.712 0.702 0.707 0.724 0.727 0.734
 Slovakia Europe 0.6757 0.6797 0.6824 0.6845 0.6778 0.6797 0.6824 0.6857 0.6806 0.675 0.679 0.694 0.693 0.718 0.712 0.717
 Slovenia Europe 0.6745 0.6842 0.6937 0.6982 0.7047 0.7041 0.7132 0.7155 0.7443 0.784 0.786 0.805 0.784 0.743 0.741 0.744
 South Africa Africa 0.7125 0.7194 0.7232 0.7709 0.7535 0.7478 0.7496 0.7510 0.7527 0.759 0.764 0.756 0.755 0.780 0.781 0.782
 Spain Europe 0.7319 0.7444 0.7281 0.7345 0.7554 0.7580 0.7266 0.7266 0.7325 0.742 0.738 0.746 0.746 0.795 0.788 0.788
 Sri Lanka South Asia 0.7199 0.7230 0.7371 0.7402 0.7458 0.7212 0.7122 0.7019 0.6903 0.686 0.673 0.669 0.676 0.680 0.670 0.670
 Suriname South America N/A 0.6794 0.6674 0.6726 0.6407 0.6395 0.6409 0.6369 0.6504 0.670 0.679 0.689 0.695 0.707 0.729 0.737
 Sweden Europe 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 0.8159 0.8129 0.8165 0.823 0.815 0.816 0.822 0.820 0.823 0.822
  Switzerland Europe 0.6997 0.6924 0.7360 0.7426 0.7562 0.7627 0.7672 0.7736 0.7798 0.785 0.776 0.755 0.755 0.779 0.798 0.795
 Syria West Asia N/A 0.6216 0.6181 0.6072 0.5926 0.5896 0.5626 0.5661 0.5775 0.568 0.567 0.568 0.568 0.567 0.568 N/A
 Tajikistan Central Asia N/A 0.6578 0.6541 0.6661 0.6598 0.6526 0.6608 0.6682 0.6654 0.675 0.679 0.678 0.638 0.626 0.650 0.663
 Tanzania Africa 0.7038 0.6969 0.7068 0.6797 0.6829 0.6904 0.7091 0.6928 0.7182 0.718 0.716 0.700 0.704 0.713 0.707 0.719
 Thailand Southeast Asia 0.6831 0.6815 0.6917 0.6907 0.6910 0.6892 0.6893 0.6928 0.7027 0.706 0.699 0.694 0.702 0.708 0.710 0.709
 Timor-Leste Southeast Asia N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.6855 N/A N/A N/A 0.637 0.628 0.638 0.662 0.720 0.730
 Togo Africa N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.683 0.697
 Trinidad and Tobago Central America 0.6797 0.6859 0.7245 0.7298 0.7353 0.7372 0.7116 0.7166 0.7154 0.720 0.723 N/A N/A 0.756 0.749 N/A
 Tunisia Africa 0.6288 0.6283 0.6295 0.6233 0.6266 0.6255 N/A N/A 0.6272 0.634 0.636 0.651 0.648 0.644 0.649 0.643
 Turkey West Asia 0.5850 0.5768 0.5853 0.5828 0.5876 0.5954 0.6015 0.6081 0.6183 0.624 0.623 0.625 0.628 0.635 0.638 0.639
 Uganda Africa 0.6797 0.6833 0.6981 0.7067 0.7169 0.7220 0.7228 0.7086 0.6821 0.708 0.704 0.721 0.724 0.717 0.717 0.724
 Ukraine Europe 0.6797 0.6790 0.6856 0.6896 0.6869 0.6861 0.6894 0.6935 0.7056 0.702 0.7 0.705 0.708 0.721 0.714 0.707
 United Arab Emirates West Asia 0.5919 0.6184 0.6220 0.6198 0.6397 0.6454 0.6392 0.6372 0.6436 0.646 0.639 0.649 0.642 0.655 0.716 0.716
 United Kingdom Europe 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 0.7433 0.7440 0.7383 0.758 0.752 0.770 0.744 0.767 0.775 0.780
 United States North America 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 0.7373 0.7392 0.7463 0.740 0.722 0.718 0.720 0.724 0.763 0.769
 Uruguay South America 0.6549 0.6608 0.6907 0.6936 0.6897 0.6907 0.6745 0.6803 0.6871 0.679 0.681 0.710 0.715 0.737 0.702 0.711
 Vanuatu Oceania N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.625 0.670
 Venezuela South America 0.6664 0.6797 0.6875 0.6839 0.6863 0.6861 0.7060 0.7060 0.6851 0.691 0.694 0.706 0.709 0.713 0.699 N/A
 Vietnam Southeast Asia N/A 0.6889 0.6778 0.6802 0.6776 0.6732 0.6867 0.6863 0.6915 0.687 0.7 0.698 0.698 0.700 0.701 0.705
 Yemen West Asia 0.4595 0.4510 0.4664 0.4609 0.4603 0.4873 0.5054 0.5128 0.5145 0.484 0.516 0.516 0.499 0.494 0.492 N/A
 Zambia Africa 0.6360 0.6288 0.6205 0.6310 0.6293 0.6300 0.6279 0.6312 0.6364 0.650 N/A N/A N/A 0.731 0.726 0.723
 Zimbabwe Africa 0.6461 0.6464 0.6485 0.6518 0.6574 0.6607 N/A N/A 0.7013 0.709 0.71 0.717 0.721 0.730 0.732 0.734

Limits and Criticisms[edit]

The report measures women's disadvantage compared to men, and is not a measure of equality of the gender gap. Gender imbalances to the advantage of women do not affect the score.[17] So, for example, the indicator "number of years of a female head of state (last 50 years) over male value" would score 1 if the number of years was 25, but would still score 1 if the number of years was 50. Due to this methodology, gender gaps that favor women over men are reported as equality and would not cause deficits of equality in other areas to become less visible in the score, excepted for life expectancy. To put it more simply: women could be better off in all areas and still the index would deem that country perfectly equal.

The index is designed to "measure gender-based gaps in access to resources and opportunities in countries rather than the actual level of the available resources and opportunities in those countries."[14]

In an academic publication from 2010, Beneria and Permanyer criticized the Global Gender Gap Index for only capturing inequality in certain aspects of women's lives therefore making it an incomplete measure of gender inequality.[18]

In an academic publication from 2019, Stoet and Geary argued that the Global Gender Gap Index has limitations as a measure of gender equality, because of the way it caps scores and because it ignores specific issues on which men are known to fall behind (e.g., risks of working in hazardous jobs).[19] According to the Global Gender Gap Report 2021, the index do not penalize a country where women outperform men in certain aspect and consider that parity is achieved in life expectancy only if women live five years longer than men.[16]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Years of report publication. Values may reflect data collected the previous year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2017". Archived from the original on 2018-05-12. Retrieved 2018-05-11.
  2. ^ a b 2008 Report, p. 24
  3. ^ 2014 report, page 5
  4. ^ 2008 Report, p. 5
  5. ^ a b c d The Global Gender Gap Report 2018 (GGGR), p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data truncation at equality benchmark: As a second step, these ratios are truncated at the "equality benchmark”. For all indicators, except the two health indicators, this equality benchmark is considered to be 1, meaning equal numbers of women and men.
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … To calculate the Index, all ratios were truncated at the parity benchmark of 1 and thus the highest score possible is 1.
  6. ^ a b c d GGGR 2018, p. 6; Table 2: Calculation of weights within each subin-dex
  7. ^ GGGR 2018, p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data truncation at equality benchmark: … In the case of sex ratio at birth, the equality benchmark is set at 0.944,
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … except for the sex ratio at birth (0.944)
  8. ^ GGGR 2018, p. 5, Construction of the Index, § 2. Data trun-cation at equality benchmark: … the case of healthy life expectancy the equality benchmark is set at 1.06.
    GGGR 2018, p. 42, Country Score Card: … and the healthy life expectancy (1.06) indicators.
  9. ^ 2016 Report, Page 6
  10. ^ http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2012.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  11. ^ "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013" (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
  12. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2014 - Reports - World Economic Forum". Global Gender Gap Report 2014.
  13. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2015 - Rankings". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Global Gender Gap Report 2017 - Rankings". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  15. ^ "Global Gender Gap Report 2020" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Global Gender Gap Report 2021" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  17. ^ Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard University, Laura D. Tyson, University of California, Berkeley, Saadia Zahidi, World Economic Forum, Editors (2009). "The Global Gender Gap Report 2009" (PDF). World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2009-11-02. (...) the Index rewards countries that reach the point where outcomes for women equal those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes cases in which women are outperforming men in particular variables {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Beneria, L., Permanyer, I.,(2010). The Measurement of Socio-economic Gender Inequality Revisited, Development and Change, 41:3, pp.375-399
  19. ^ Stoet, G. & Geary, D.C. (2019). A simplified approach to measuring national gender inequality, PLOS ONE 14(1): e0205349. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205349

External links[edit]

Reports[edit]