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Forest Landscape Integrity Index Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest_Landscape_Integrity_Index

Forest Landscape Integrity Index 2019 map of the Earth. 0 = Most modification; 10= Least.

The Forest Landscape Integrity Index (FLII) is an annual global index of forest condition measured by degree of anthropogenic modification.[1][2][3][4][5] Created by a team of 48 scientists, the FLII, in its measurement of 300m pixels of forest across the globe, finds that ~17.4 million km2 of forest has high landscape-level integrity (with a score from 9.6–10), compared to ~14.6 million with medium integrity (6–9.6) and ~12.2 million km2 with low integrity (0–6).

The FLII finds that most remaining high-integrity forest landscapes are found in Canada, Russia, Rocky Mountains, Alaska, the Amazon, the Guianas, southern Chile, Central Africa, and New Guinea. Low integrity forests, on the other hand, are found in Western and Central Europe, the American Southwest, South-East Asia west of New Guinea, the Andes, much of China and India, the Albertine Rift, West Africa, Mesoamerica, and the Atlantic Forests of Brazil.

The results are meant to help decision-makers at all levels achieve their commitments to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[1]

Forest Integrity[edit]

An ecosystem is considered to have integrity when its structure, composition, and ecological processes are within their natural range.[6]

Country rankings[edit]

172 countries have been ranked: [7]

Forest Landscape Integrity 2019
Country Mean FLII Low integrity (km2) Medium integrity (km2) High integrity (km2) Total forest area (km2) Map
 Seychelles 10 0 0 68 68
FLII Seychelles.png
 Sudan 9.8 1 72 495 569
FLII Sudan.png
 Guyana 9.58 4,162 40,817 147,413 192,391
FLII Guyana.png
 South Sudan 9.45 5,083 59,389 146,218 210,691
FLII SouthSudan.png
 Suriname 9.39 6,796 25,031 107,954 139,781
FLII Suriname.png
 Mongolia 9.36 520 11,915 27,407 39,841
FLII Mongolia.png
 Central African Republic 9.28 30,161 139,350 379,097 548,608
FLII CAR.png
 Botswana 9.13 13 187 372 572
FLII Botswana.png
 Gabon 9.07 11,780 118,348 120,852 250,979
FLII Gabon.png
 Russian Federation 9.02 739,484 2,245,281 5,137,079 8,121,843
FLII Russia.png
 Canada 8.99 480,206 1,027,386 2,968,268 4,475,860
FLII Canada.png
 Congo 8.89 24,512 124,215 158,184 306,911
FLII CongoRep.png
 Kyrgyzstan 8.86 329 2,819 2,761 5,909
FLII Kyrgyzstan.png
 Peru 8.86 85,793 190,547 509,720 786,061
FLII Peru.png
 Afghanistan 8.85 90 1,475 977 2,542
FLII Afghanistan.png
 Bhutan 8.85 1,620 16,769 10,140 28,529
FLII Bhutan.png
 Papua New Guinea 8.84 37,294 183,415 216,355 437,064
FLII PapuaNewGuinea.png
 Vanuatu 8.82 734 5,322 4,448 10,504
FLII Vanuatu.png
 Venezuela 8.78 64,650 170,792 351,112 586,554
FLII Venezuela.png
 Tajikistan 8.65 34 137 130 301
FLII Tajikistan.png
 Bolivia 8.47 78,745 280,532 272,007 631,284
FLII Bolivia.png
 Namibia 8.43 5 13 17 36
FLII Namibia.png
 Angola 8.35 105,487 284,054 315,895 705,436
FLII Angola.png
 Fiji 8.35 1,753 10,802 3,594 16,148
FLII Fiji.png
 Colombia 8.26 150,737 272,442 428,320 851,499
FLII Colombia.png
 Kazakhstan 8.23 6,068 18,926 15,294 40,288
FLII Kazakhstan.png
 Palau 8.09 45 333 9 387
FLII Palau.png
 North Korea 8.02 8,374 40,156 8,410 56,939
FLII NorthKorea.png
 Cameroon 8 66,191 181,336 119,263 366,789
FLII Cameroon.png
 Equatorial Guinea 7.99 3,982 17,595 5,007 26,585
FLII EquatorialGuinea.png
 Georgia 7.79 6,982 17,803 9,784 34,570
FLII Georgia.png
 Brunei Darussalam 7.71 1,102 2,842 1,498 5,442
FLII Brunei.png
 Comoros 7.69 284 1,149 82 1,515
FLII Comoros.png
 Iran 7.67 3,361 12,930 2,162 18,453
FLII Iran.png
 Ecuador 7.66 48,822 77,585 73,492 199,900
FLII Ecuador.png
 DRC 7.56 533,118 935,508 727,983 2,196,608
FLII CongoDR.png
 Micronesia 7.55 8 35 0 43
FLII Micronesia.png
 Brazil 7.52 1,374,902 1,354,961 2,338,101 5,067,963
FLII Brazil.png
 Zambia 7.5 96,969 164,376 110,822 372,167
FLII Zambia.png
 North Macedonia 7.42 2,034 7,090 459 9,583
FLII NorthMacedonia.png
 Pakistan 7.42 2,090 7,859 1,139 11,088
FLII Pakistan.png
 Lesotho 7.4 1 4 0 5
FLII Lesotho.png
 Chile 7.37 56,849 41,971 93,537 192,357
FLII Chile.png
 Bahamas 7.35 741 1,935 399 3,075
FLII Bahamas.png
   Nepal 7.23 13,785 41,992 3,760 59,538
FLII Nepal.png
 Australia 7.22 117,672 239,624 103,852 461,148
FLII Australia.png
 Argentina 7.21 98,249 189,966 72,557 360,772
FLII Argentina.png
 Solomon Islands 7.19 6,871 15,310 3,149 25,329
FLII Solomons.png
 Myanmar 7.18 129,745 220,188 96,924 446,857
FLII Myanmar.png
 Ethiopia 7.16 52,652 84,430 44,397 181,479
FLII Ethiopia.png
 Mali 7.16 451 996 140 1,586
FLII Mali.png
 Somalia 7.16 347 1,384 46 1,777
FLII Somalia.png
 China 7.14 533,800 974,431 301,051 1,809,282
FLII China.png
 Tanzania 7.13 123,997 159,712 122,812 406,521
FLII Tanzania.png
 New Zealand 7.12 34,503 44,155 35,334 113,992
FLII NewZealand.png
 Senegal 7.11 847 2,456 162 3,465
FLII Senegal.png
 Timor-Leste 7.11 1,783 7,008 47 8,838
FLII TimorLeste.png
 India 7.09 117,992 254,792 54,428 427,211
FLII India.png
 Cyprus 7.06 388 1,026 18 1,432
FLII Cyprus.png
 Norway 6.98 39,343 67,383 16,627 123,352
FLII Norway.png
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6.95 91 221 0 312
FLII StVincentGrenadines.png
 Mozambique 6.93 150,665 189,362 115,379 455,406
FLII Mozambique.png
 Mexico 6.82 193,908 280,445 121,842 596,195
FLII Mexico.png
 Albania 6.77 2,426 5,256 122 7,805
FLII Albania.png
 Uzbekistan 6.77 214 227 199 640
FLII Uzbekistan.png
 Morocco 6.74 2,260 4,076 451 6,787
FLII Morocco.png
 United States 6.65 1,328,079 1,144,693 658,645 3,131,417
FLII USA.png
 Sao Tome and Principe 6.64 31 140 0 171
FLII SaoTomePrincipe.png
 Trinidad and Tobago 6.62 1,478 2,176 418 4,072
FLII Trinidad.png
 Greece 6.6 14,548 27,833 1,078 43,459
FLII Greece.png
 Indonesia 6.6 535,370 509,018 431,973 1,476,361
FLII Indonesia.png
 Azerbaijan 6.55 4,820 7,189 1,534 13,543
FLII Azerbaijan.png
 Montenegro 6.41 2,949 4,778 82 7,809
FLII Montenegro.png
 Paraguay 6.39 78,538 102,626 29,877 211,041
FLII Paraguay.png
 Turkey 6.39 43,043 68,243 3,516 114,801
FLII Turkey.png
 Taiwan 6.38 8,786 14,547 1,453 24,786
FLII Taiwan.png
 Cabo Verde 6.37 27 38 0 65
FLII CapeVerde.png
 Panama 6.37 25,420 21,310 14,605 61,336
FLII Panama.png
 Cambodia 6.31 30,143 31,939 16,349 78,431
FLII Cambodia.png
 Turkmenistan 6.31 5 33 0 37
FLII Turkmenistan.png
 Zimbabwe 6.31 9,450 14,417 1,644 25,511
FLII Zimbabwe.png
 Nigeria 6.2 64,621 65,355 24,307 154,283
FLII Nigeria.png
 Chad 6.18 5,261 6,016 1,910 13,187
FLII Chad.png
 Saint Lucia 6.17 235 316 0 551
FLII StLucia.png
 Belize 6.15 7,004 7,957 2,744 17,705
FLII Belize.png
 Bulgaria 6.09 18,884 26,325 847 46,057
FLII Bulgaria.png
 South Korea 6.02 25,060 32,009 888 57,956
FLII SouthKorea.png
 Thailand 6 86,276 89,326 33,612 209,214
FLII Thailand.png
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.99 13,387 17,031 574 30,993
FLII Bosnia Herzegovina.png
 Romania 5.95 38,395 48,394 607 87,395
FLII Romania.png
 Philippines 5.91 91,820 100,831 8,393 201,044
FLII Philippines.png
 Togo 5.88 5,064 4,522 1,076 10,662
FLII Togo.png
 Benin 5.86 4,724 3,698 1,769 10,191
FLII Benin.png
 Sri Lanka 5.83 20,.541 22,390 1,613 44,544
FLII SriLanka.png
 Japan 5.8 135,783 133,480 16,005 285,268
FLII Japan.png
 Malawi 5.74 12,514 12,167 2,396 27,078
FLII Malawi.png
 Guinea-Bissau 5.7 9,274 8,702 855 18,831
FLII GuineaBissau.png
 Laos 5.59 92,986 80,564 19,252 192,801
FLII Laos.png
 Armenia 5.46 1,894 1,681 3 3,577
FLII Armenia.png
 Mauritius 5.46 567 478 0 1,045
FLII Mauritius.png
 Bangladesh 5.45 10,013 7,251 1,947 19,211
FLII Bangladesh.png
 Cuba 5.4 22,605 18,460 1,632 42,697
FLII Cuba.png
 Sweden 5.35 174,415 109,779 23,494 307,687
FLII Sweden.png
 Vietnam 5.35 82,551 75,353 9,588 167,492
FLII Vietnam.png
 Serbia 5.29 17,513 14,112 516 32,141
FLII Serbia.png
 Algeria 5.22 7,418 6,044 81 13,543
Flii algeria.png
 Kosovo 5.19 2,628 1,775 47 4,450
FLII Kosovo.png
 Tunisia 5.14 1,354 987 0 2,340
FLII Tunisia.png
 Finland 5.08 144,310 83,572 9,294 237,176
FLII Finland.png
 Jamaica 5.01 5,362 3,249 158 8,770
FLII Jamaica.png
 Malaysia 5.01 130,825 91,957 21,499 244,281
FLII Malaysia.png
 South Africa 4.94 45,489 34,968 3,196 83,653
FLII SouthAfrica.png
 Croatia 4.92 15,732 10,522 379 26,633
FLII Croatia.png
 Guinea 4.9 81,702 54,877 2,895 139,475
FLII Guinea.png
 Libya 4.85 15 2 0 17
FLII Libya.png
 Liberia 4.79 51,975 31,162 11,025 94,163
FLII Liberia.png
 Antigua and Barbuda 4.72 114 92 0 206
FLII Antigua.png
 Costa Rica 4.65 27,164 12,838 4,164 44,167
FLII CostaRica.png
 Madagascar 4.63 120,340 66,584 11,922 198,846
FLII Madagascar.png
 Gambia 4.56 181 85 0 266
FLII TheGambia.png
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 4.55 95 50 0 145
FLII StKittsNevis.png
 Ghana 4.53 57,519 28,901 2,160 88,580
FLII Ghana.png
 France 4.52 161,987 49,496 74,121 285,604
FLII France.png
 Burundi 4.5 6,882 3,841 46 10,769
FLII Burundi.png
 Liechtenstein 4.5 59 42 0 101
FLII Liechtenstein.png
 Honduras 4.48 57,899 23,802 3,692 85,392
FLII Honduras.png
 Andorra 4.45 170 49 0 219
FLII Andorra.png
 Uganda 4.36 77,303 36,381 7,507 121,190
FLII Uganda.png
 Slovakia 4.34 17,615 8,165 0 25,781
FLII Slovakia.png
 Spain 4.23 82,770 46,013 133 128,916
FLII Spain.png
 Grenada 4.22 221 86 0 308
FLII Grenada.png
 Eswatini 4.21 5,054 2,501 14 7,569
FLII Eswatini.png
 Kenya 4.2 28,427 13,558 4,702 46,686
FLII Kenya.png
 Dominican Republic 4.19 19,890 9,364 518 29,772
FLII Dominican Republic.png
 Israel 4.14 170 85 0 255
FLII Israel.png
 El Salvador 4.05 8,837 2,947 0 11,784
FLII ElSalvador.png
 Haiti 4.01 7,116 2,831 12 9,959
FLII Haiti.png
 Guatemala 3.85 58,572 18,764 5,592 82,928
FLII Guatemala.png
 Rwanda 3.85 5,665 2,170 619 8,454
FLII Rwanda.png
 Slovenia 3.78 11,065 3,791 0 14,856
FLII Slovenia.png
 Lebanon 3.76 541 115 0 656
FLII Lebanon.png
 Italy 3.65 79,403 26,858 25 106,286
FLII Italy.png
 Cote d'Ivoire 3.64 158,010 41,005 7,288 206,303
FLII IvoryCoast.png
 Syria 3.64 841 282 0 1,123
FLII Syria.png
 Belarus 3.63 77,870 20,847 91 98,808
FLII Belarus.png
 Nicaragua 3.63 65,356 17,646 4,858 87,860
FLII Nicaragua.png
 Uruguay 3.61 11,793 3,998 0 15,791
FLII Uruguay.png
 Iraq 3.59 104 9 0 113
FLII Iraq.png
 Austria 3.55 36,666 12,422 21 49,109
FLII Austria.png
  Switzerland 3.53 13,636 4,412 10 18,058
FLII Switzerland.png
 Ukraine 3.3 89,540 20,183 176 109,900
FLII Ukraine.png
 Estonia 3.05 24,473 4,832 52 29,358
FLII Estonia.png
 Jordan 2.79 12 0 0 12
FLII Jordan.png
 Sierra Leone 2.76 52,512 11,858 640 65,010
FLII SierraLeone.png
 Germany 2.28 122,168 11,307 0 133,475
FLII Germany.png
 Hungary 2.25 18,729 2,047 0 20,776
FLII Hungary.png
 Poland 2.24 101,886 7,103 0 108,989
FLII Poland.png
 Moldova 2.2 3,113 202 0 3,315
FLII Moldova.png
 Latvia 2.09 38,164 2,137 0 40,301
FLII Latvia.png
 Czechia 1.71 32,161 1,611 0 33,772
FLII Czechia.png
 United Kingdom 1.65 29,149 2,917 35 32,101
FLII UK.png
 Lithuania 1.62 24.,554 930 0 25,484
FLII Lithuania.png
 Belgium 1.36 8,803 297 0 9,099
FLII Belgium.png
 Luxembourg 1.12 1,170 0 0 1,170
FLII Luxembourg.png
 Singapore 1.11 170 2 0 172
FLII Singapore.png
 Dominica 1.06 531 2 0 533
FLII Dominica.png
 Ireland 0.92 5,283 96 0 5,378
FLII Ireland.png
 Portugal 0.82 25,966 553 0 26,519
FLII Portugal.png
 Netherlands 0.6 5,250 72 0 5,322
FLII Netherlands.png
 Egypt 0.56 4,772 218 69 5,059
FLII Egypt.png
 Denmark 0.5 5,756 31 0 5,787
FLII Denmark.png
 San Marino 0.01 7 0 0 7
FLII SanMarino.png
  Countries with high mean FLII (8-10)
  Countries with medium mean FLII (5-7.99)
  Countries with low mean FLII (0-4.99)

Background[edit]

The index was authored by a global team of forest conservation experts, including:[1]

Institution Author(s)
Wildlife Conservation Society, The Bronx H.S. Grantham; A. Duncan; T. D. Evans; K. R. Jones; J. Walston; J. G. Robinson; M. Callow; T. Clements; H. M. Costa; A. DeGemmis; P. R. Elsen; P. Franco; S. Jupiter; A. Kang; S. Lieberman; M. Linkie; M. Mendez; C. Samper; J. Silverman; T. Stevens; E. Stokes; T. Tear; R. Tizard; S. Wang; J. E. M. Watson
University of Queensland, Brisbane H. L. Beyer; S. Maxwell; H. Possingham; J. E. M. Watson
Carleton University, Ottawa R. Schuster
Wildlife Conservation Society Canada, Toronto J. C. Ray
United Nations Development Program, Manhattan J. Ervin
World Resources Institute, Washington, DC E. Goldman; R. Taylor
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff S. Goetz; P. Jantz
Montana State University, Bozeman A. Hansen
Rainforest Foundation Norway, Oslo E. Hofsvang
Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, Texas P. Langhammer; R. Mittermeier
Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona P. Langhammer
James Cook University, Cairns W. F. Laurance; N. J. Murray
University of Oxford, Oxford Y. Malhi
The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia H. Possingham
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California S. Saatchi
World Wide Fund for Nature Germany, Berlin A. Shapiro
International Institute of Sustainability, Rio de Janeiro B. Strassburg
University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia O. Venter
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria P. Visconti

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5978G. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
  2. ^ Elcacho, Joaquim (2020-12-14). "Descubre con este mapa dónde están los mejores bosques de tu país y del mundo" [Discover with this map where are the best forests in your country and in the world]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Barcelona. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  3. ^ "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity". Nature-based Solutions Initiative. University of Oxford. 2020-12-10. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  4. ^ Попова, Марина (2020-12-09). "Прямое влияние человека обошло стороной 40 процентов современных лесов" [Direct human influence bypassed 40 percent of modern forests] (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  5. ^ "New Forest Landscape Integrity Index Reveals that Only 40 Percent of World's Forests Have High Integrity". WCS Newsroom. Wildlife Conservation Society. 2020-12-08. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  6. ^ Parrish, Jeffrey D.; Braun, David P.; Unnasch, Robert S. (2003). "Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas". BioScience. 53 (9): 851. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0851:AWCWWS]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0006-3568.
  7. ^ Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C.; Robinson, J. G.; Callow, M.; Clements, T.; Costa, H. M.; DeGemmis, A.; Elsen, P. R.; Ervin, J.; Franco, P.; Goldman, E.; Goetz, S.; Hansen, A.; Hofsvang, E.; Jantz, P.; Jupiter, S.; Kang, A.; Langhammer, P.; Laurance, W. F.; Lieberman, S.; Linkie, M.; Malhi, Y.; Maxwell, S.; Mendez, M.; Mittermeier, R.; Murray, N. J.; Possingham, H.; Radachowsky, J.; Saatchi, S.; Samper, C.; Silverman, J.; Shapiro, A.; Strassburg, B.; Stevens, T.; Stokes, E.; Taylor, R.; Tear, T.; Tizard, R.; Venter, O.; Visconti, P.; Wang, S.; Watson, J. E. M. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.

External links[edit]