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Ethnic origins of people in Canada Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_origins_of_people_in_Canada

Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins per census division of 2006
[1]

According to the 2021 Canadian census, over 450 "ethnic or cultural origins" were self-reported by Canadians.[2] The major panethnic origin groups in Canada are: European (52.5%), North American (22.9%), Asian (19.3%), North American Indigenous (6.1%), African (3.8%), Latin, Central and South American (2.5%), Caribbean (2.1%), Oceanian (0.3%), and Other (6%).[2][3] Statistics Canada reports that 35.5% of the population reported multiple ethnic origins, thus the overall total is greater than 100%.[2][a]

The country's ten largest self-reported specific ethnic or cultural origins in 2021 were Canadian[b] (accounting for 15.6 percent of the population), followed by English (14.7 percent), Irish (12.1 percent), Scottish (12.1 percent), French (11.0 percent), German (8.1 percent), Chinese (4.7 percent), Italian (4.3 percent), Indian (3.7 percent), and Ukrainian (3.5 percent).[7][3]

Of the 36.3 million people enumerated in 2021 approximately 25.4 million reported being "white", representing 69.8 percent of the population.[8][9] The indigenous population representing 5 percent or 1.8 million individuals, grew by 9.4 percent compared to the non-Indigenous population, which grew by 5.3 percent from 2016 to 2021.[10] One out of every four Canadians or 26.5 percent of the population belonged to a non-White and non-Indigenous visible minority,[9][c] the largest of which in 2021 were South Asian (2.6 million people; 7.1 percent), Chinese (1.7 million; 4.7 percent) and Black (1.5 million; 4.3 percent).[8]

Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percent.[12] In 1961, less than two percent of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups.[13] The 2021 Census indicated that 8.3 million people, or almost one-quarter (23.0 percent) of the population reported themselves as being or having been a landed immigrant or permanent resident in Canada—above the 1921 Census previous record of 22.3 percent.[14] In 2021 India, China, and the Philippines were the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada.[15]

Data collection method[edit]

Listed below are the ethnic groups of Canadian residents (citizens, landed immigrants and non-citizen temporary residents) as self-identified in the 2016 census in which approximately 35,151,000 census forms were completed). The relevant census question asked for "the ethnic or cultural origins" of the respondent's ancestors and not the respondents themselves. As data were collected by self-declaration, ethnic groups may not necessarily correspond to the true ancestry of respondents.[16] Many respondents acknowledged multiple ancestries. These people were added to the "multiple origin" total for each origin listed. These include responses as varied as a respondent who listed eight different origins and a respondent who answered "French Canadian" (leading to them being counted once for "French" and once for "Canadian"). As with all self-reported data, understanding of the question may have varied from respondent to respondent.

Larger ethnic origins (200,000 or more individuals per group; 2016 census)[edit]

A map showing the largest ethnic or cultural origins in Canada by census division in 2021.
[1]
Ethnicity[17] Combined
responses[17]
As single
response[17]
One of multiple
responses[17]
Canadian[b] 11,135,965 6,436,940 4,699,030
English 6,320,085 1,098,930 5,221,150
Scottish 4,799,010 475,575 4,323,430
French 4,670,595 1,006,180 3,664,415
Irish 4,627,000 457,905 4,169,095
German 3,322,405 569,650 2,752,750
Chinese 1,769,195 1,439,980 329,215
Italian 1,587,970 695,420 892,550
First Nations[d] 1,525,565 526,570 999,000
Indian (from India) 1,374,710 1,096,845 277,865
Ukrainian 1,359,655 273,810 1,085,845
Dutch 1,111,655 289,675 821,980
Polish 1,106,585 264,415 842,170
Filipino 837,130 651,390 185,740
British Isles,
not included elsewhere
644,695 132,830 511,865
Russian 622,445 120,165 502,280
Métis 600,000 91,255 508,740
Portuguese 482,610 264,815 217,790
Welsh 474,805 25,190 449,615
Norwegian 463,275 35,905 427,370
Spanish 396,460 70,330 326,130
American 377,410 29,590 347,810
Swedish 349,640 21,775 327,870
Hungarian (Magyar) 348,085 83,400 264,685
Jamaican 309,485 161,495 147,995
Greek 271,405 141,580 129,830
Vietnamese 240,615 165,385 75,225
Romanian 238,050 96,910 141,145
Lebanese 219,555 130,590 88,965
Pakistani 215,555 156,300 59,255
African,
not included elsewhere
212,005 76,790 135,210
Iranian 210,405 170,755 39,650
Danish 207,470 26,985 180,485
Austrian 207,050 20,225 186,820

Smaller ethnic origins (2016 census)[edit]

Ethnicity[17] Combined
responses[17]
As single
response[17]
One of multiple
responses
per respondent[17]
Korean 198,210 177,920 20,285
Québécois 194,555 119,985 74,575
Belgian 186,665 31,765 154,89
Haitian 165,100 125,780 39,320
Swiss 155,120 25,235 129,885
Sri Lankan 152,590 114,120 38,475
Jewish 143,660 39,710 103,950
Finnish 143,645 25,875 117,765
Croatian 133,965 55,595 78,370
Mexican 128,480 54,300 74,180
Japanese 121,485 56,725 64,760
Acadian 119,670 22,980 96,690
Punjabi,
not included elsewhere
118,400 71,535 46,860
Arab,
not included elsewhere
111,405 73,330 38,070
Czech 104,585 23,250 81,330
Moroccan 103,945 72,625 31,320
Icelandic 101,795 8,630 93,165
Egyptian 99,140 62,910 36,230
Serbian 96,535 52,730 43,800
Colombian 96,325 69,040 27,285
Guyanese 84,275 30,825 53,445
Afghan 83,995 70,240 13,755
Inuit 79,130 44,760 34,37
Trinidadian/Tobagonian 78,965 23,900 55,065
Syrian 77,050 43,685 33,36
South Asian,
not included elsewhere
76,400 55,445 20,955
Slovak 72,290 20,475 51,815
Iraqi 70,925 54,555 16,365
West Indian 70,275 30,260 40,010
European,
not included elsewhere
67,895 33,360 34,53
Algerian 67,330 49,520 17,810
Salvadorean 66,215 40,510 25,705
Turk 63,955 29,885 34,070
Armenian 63,810 34,560 29,250
Somali 62,550 54,750 7,790
Lithuanian 59,285 11,185 48,095
Scandinavian,
not included elsewhere
52,785 5,085 47,695
Nigerian 51,835 38,165 13,670
Tamil
not included elsewhere
48,670 22,145 26,525
Bangladeshi 58,735 45,945 39,255
Chilean 45,190 18,685 26,510
Palestinian 44,820 25,195 19,630
Ethiopian 44,060 34,260 9,805
Macedonian 43,110 18,405 24,705
Australian 42,315 4,520 37,800
Peruvian 42,145 20,645 21,500
Maltese 41,915 12,820 29,100
South African 41,380 8,005 33,37
Czechoslovakian,
not otherwise specified
40,715 5,075 35,640
Slovenian 40,470 13,690 26,78
Cambodian 38,490 21,445 17,045
Yugoslav
not included elsewhere
38,480 8,570 29,91
Congolese 38,370 29,675 8,685
Barbadian 37,775 11,605 26,170
Berber 37,060 22,965 14,100
Brazilian 36,830 11,035 25,795
Taiwanese 36,515 23,260 13,250
Albanian 36,185 28,425 7,760
Ghanaian 35,495 26,535 8,960
Bulgarian 34,560 19,965 14,595
Latvian 30,725 7,040 23,685
Black 30,385 5,535 24,855
Cuban 29,065 10,040 19,030
Israeli 28,740 6,450 22,280
Latin, Central or South American,
not included elsewhere
28,455 14,295 14,155
Caribbean,
not included elsewhere
26,830 8,930 17,900
Bosnian 26,740 15,610 11,125
Venezuelan 26,345 10,305 16,040
Guatemalan 26,270 13,905 12,370
Tunisian 25,650 17,620 8,030
Ecuadorian 25,410 13,925 11,485
West Asian,
not included elsewhere
25,285 13,430 11,855
Eritrean 25,255 20,625 4,630
Cameroonian 24,615 20,605 4,010
Laotian 24,580 13,375 11,205
Estonian 24,530 6,155 18,375
Dominican 23,130 9,930 13,200
Bengali 22,905 18,435 4,470
Asian,
not otherwise specified
22,740 15,760 6,980
Aboriginal from Central/South America 22,720 2,080 20,645
Newfoundlander 22,215 4,895 17,325
Indonesian 21,395 4,775 16,615
Belorusian 20,710 5,125 15,585
Argentinian 20,680 4,165 16,510
Eastern European,
not included elsewhere
20,420 5,875 14,545
Sudanese 19,960 15,250 4,710
Fijian 19,370 8,270 11,105
Thai 19,005 7,740 11,265
Grenadian 17,915 7,515 10,400
Vincentian/Grenadinian 17,425 7,245 10,180
East African 17,305 7,220 10,085
Nepali 17,135 13,695 3,440
Malaysian 16,920 2,555 14,365
Kurdish 16,320 10,470 5,845
New Zealander 15,395 1,300 14,095
Central and West African origins,
not included elsewhere
15,380 7,800 7,585
Moldovan 14,915 7,415 7,505
Jordanian 14,250 7,955 6,295
Assyrian 13,830 8,870 4,960
Nicaraguan 13,705 6,360 7,350
Breton 11,845 3,230 8,615
Flemish 11,685 1,485 10,200
Hispanic 11,050 5,660 5,395
Burundian 10,990 8,965 2,025
Ivoirean 10,935 7,795 3,140
Kenyan 10,915 5,445 5,465
Rwandan 10,775 8,080 2,690
Honduran 10,650 5,325 5,325
Senegalese 10,175 6,490 3,685
Yoruba 9,585 6,870 2,715
Burmese 9,335 4,660 4,675
Mauritian 9,325 3,520 5,805
St. Lucian 8,985 4,040 4,945
Gujarati 8,350 5,290 3,060
Zimbabwean 8,090 4,945 3,140
Tibetan 8,040 7,015 1,030
Libyan 7,745 5,755 1,985
Mongolian 7,480 2,555 4,925
Sinhalese 7,285 4,355 2,930
Guinean 7,240 4,705 2,540
Basque 6,970 715 6,250
Sicilian 6,940 1,345 5,600
Saudi Arabian 6,810 4,200 2,615
Uruguayan 6,795 1,810 4,985
Yemeni 6,640 2,940 3,700
East or Southeast Asian,
not included elsewhere
6,505 4,235 2,270
Azerbaijani 6,425 2,280 4,145
Maya 6,290 1,180 5,105
Manx 6,125 285 5,845
North African,
not included elsewhere
6,115 2,905 3,210
Goan 6,070 2,040 4,030
Ugandan 5,705 3,245 2,460
Cypriot 5,650 1,265 4,385
Costa Rican 5,535 2,140 3,395
Igbo 5,320 3,475 1,845
Togolese 5,300 3,095 2,205
Bolivian 5,055 1,890 3,160
Beninese 4,990 2,650 2,340
Slavic,
not otherwise specified
4,870 1,470 3,400
Tatar 4,825 880 3,940
Pashtun 4,810 2,245 2,565
Georgian 4,775 1,900 2,875
Yakut 4,761 1,886 2,875
Tanzanian 4,710 1,835 2,875
Panamanian 4,700 1,090 3,610
Roma (Gypsy) 4,630 745 3,895
Frisian 4,590 795 3,790
Karen 4,515 3,835 680
Antiguan 4,505 1,275 3,225
Malagasy 4,500 2,155 2,345
Malian 4,485 2,310 2,180
Paraguayan 4,325 670 3,660
Montenegrin 4,165 915 3,245
Bantu,
not otherwise specified
3,965 2,315 1,645
Uzbek 3,920 1,730 2,190
Luxembourger 3,915 440 3,475
Bahamian 3,670 810 2,860
Bhutanese 3,600 2,440 1,160
Channel Islander 3,590 435 3,155
Coptic 3,535 1,490 2,040
Puerto Rican 3,410 445 2,960
Western European origins,
not included elsewhere
3,370 840 2,530
Oromo 3,355 2,410 945
Kazakh 3,325 1,465 1,860
Hawaiian 3,295 120 3,175
Burkinabe 3,155 1,980 1,165
Kashmiri 3,115 1,095 2,020
Bermudan 3,075 310 2,765
Carib 3,035 130 2,905
Angolan 2,955 1,140 1,820
Kittitian/Nevisian 2,920 750 2,165
Tajik 2,910 1,240 1,665
Kosovar 2,870 1,710 1,160
Singaporean 2,850 495 2,355
Alsatian 2,800 375 2,425
Sierra Leonean 2,620 1,580 1,040
Maori 2,500 155 2,345
Liberian 2,485 1,520 965
Peulh 2,440 1,425 1,015
Pacific Islands origins,
not included elsewhere
2,335 470 1,865
Kuwaiti 2,235 1,080 1,155
Southern European origins,
not included elsewhere
2,165 440 1,730
Tigrian 2,155 1,340 810
Martinican 2,005 370 1,635
Cornish 1,970 120 1,855
Akan 1,955 1,235 720
Edo 1,945 1,180 765
Other North American origins,
not included elsewhere
1,895 655 1,240
Afrikaner 1,870 280 1,595
Zambian 1,865 1,055 805
Chadian 1,845 1,185 655
Belizean 1,755 250 1,505
Corsican 1,750 165 1,590
Djiboutian 1,710 980 730
Ashanti 1,585 765 825
Uighur 1,555 1,010 540
Amhara 1,530 710 820
Samoan 1,530 150 1,375
Hazara 1,515 585 930
Arawak 1,440 55 1,385
Gabonese 1,405 595 820
Seychellois 1,285 575 710
Catalan 1,275 200 1,075
Maure 1,190 400 790
Guadeloupean 1,130 245 885
Malinké 1,120 675 455
Polynesian,
not otherwise specified
1,105 90 1,015
Kyrgyz 1,060 580 475
Turkmen 1,040 390 655
Gambian 975 580 395
Zulu 945 285 660
Bavarian 940 50 890
Montserratian 935 190 745
Dinka 900 585 320
Ewe 845 320 525
Wolof 835 465 375
Hmong 810 585 220
Harari 660 395 265

Evolution from 1871 to 1921[edit]

Chinese labourers, British Columbia, 1884
Scottish-origin Lord Strathcona, 1885.
Mormons of Cardston, Alberta in 1902
Italian labourers, Toronto, 1903
French Canadians, Dawson City, Yukon, 1905
Sikhs in British Columbia, 1905
Scottish family, Quebec City, 1911
British persons in Toronto, 1911
German family, Quebec City in 1911.
Ruthenian family, Alberta, 1911.
European, East Asian, and South Asian children, Paldi, BC, 1938.

During the fifty-year period beginning from the first census of independent Canada in 1871 until the census of 1921, the national ethnic composition was multicultural, however in the early period was dominated by four origin groups from western and northern Europe; French, English, Irish, and Scottish.[18]: 512  Following the French and British Isles origin groups, Continental European communities were the largest in Canada, and grew fairly rapidly between the 1901 census and the 1921 census.[18]: 512  Nominally small East Asian, South Asian, West Asian, and West African descended communities also existed during this time period.[18]: 512 

The ethnic French population, comprising a plurality of the total population from confederation until just prior to the 1921 census, overwhelmingly relied on natural increase for growth, with progeny stemming from early settlers who arrived throughout the 17th and 18th centuries; migration from France had been severely curtailed by the British empire and early governments of independent Canada. Population growth amongst the French population occurred at relatively high pace, increasing from 1,082,940 persons in 1871 to 2,452,743 persons in 1921.[18]: 512  Despite an increase of nearly 1.5 million persons during this fifty-year period, the French proportion of the total Canadian population dropped slightly, from 31.1%, to 27.1%.[18]: 512 

By contrast, large population increases amongst the three main ethnic groups from the British Isles (English, Irish, and Scottish) were achieved through natural increase but relied heavily on high immigration rates that began in the early-mid 19th century dubbed the Great Migration of Canada − this continued through the early 20th century, spurred by record immigration rates during the 1900s and 1910s, when English immigrants formed a majority or plurality of all immigrants to Canada on an annual and decadal basis.

The English population, in particular, grew at a rapid pace, increasing from 705,369 persons in 1871 to 2,545,358 persons in 1921, representing an increase of nearly 2 million persons during the fifty-year period.[18]: 512  During the same time period, the English proportion of the total Canadian population rose from 20.3% to 29.0%.[18]: 512  The English community experienced massive growth principally during the first two decades of the 20th century as a result of record immigration at the time; during the era, persons of English descent also became the single largest ethnic group in Canada, comprising a plurality of the Canadian population by the 1921 census.[18]: 512 

The Irish population, meanwhile, witnessed steady, slowing population growth during the late 19th and early 20th century, with the proportion of the total Canadian population dropping from 24.3% in 1871 to 12.6% in 1921 and falling from the second-largest ethnic group in Canada from to fourth − principally due to massive immigration flows from England to Canada at the time − despite the population increasing from 846,414 persons to 1,107,803 persons in the fifty-year timeframe.[18]: 512  The largest Irish population increases occurred prior to confederation, spurred by mass immigration during the mid-19th century at the height of the Great Migration of Canada, and was primarily due to The Great Famine and related poor economic conditions in Ireland at the time.

At the turn of the 20th century, overall immigrant proportions from the British Isles to Canada gradually dropped from a majority to a plurality. At the time, the federal government began supplementing increased mass immigration from the British Isles (mainly England) by also permitting large migration flows from continental Europe, especially Germany, Scandinavia, and the Soviet Union. This was primarily as a result of federal policy aimed at settling the Prairies through ethnic block settlements and ultimately led to the highest annual immigration rates in Canadian history since confederation in 1867 that remain unsurpassed in the contemporary era, including 1913 (new immigrants accounted for 5.3 percent of the total population), 1912 (5.1 percent), 1911 (4.6 percent), 1907 (4.3 percent) and 1910 (4.1 percent).[19][20]

Largely due to increased immigration levels outside of the British Isles, the continental European population grew rapidly during the first two decades of the 20th century − comprising 1,246,151 persons or 14.2% as proportion of the total Canadian population by the 1921 census, representing a numerical increase of over 1 million persons from fifty years earlier in 1871, when the continental European population stood at approximately 236,043 persons or 6.8% of the total Canadian population.[18]: 512 

Broadening the multicultural makeup of Canada, the diversity across the Prairie provinces during the early 20th century was soon dubbed a Cultural mosaic by journalist Victoria Hayward in the early 1920s:

"New Canadians, representing many places and widely separated sections of Old Europe, have contributed to the Prairie Provinces a variety in the way of Church Architecture. Cupolas and domes distinctly Eastern, almost Turkish, startle one above the tops of Manitoba maples or the bush of the river banks. These architectural figures of the landscape, apart altogether of their religious significance, are centers where, crossing the threshold on Sundays, one has the opportunity of hearing Swedish music, or the rich, deep chanting of the Russian responses; and of viewing at close hand the artistry that goes to make up the interior appointments of these churches transplanted from the East to the West… It is indeed a mosaic of vast dimensions and great breadth, essayed of the Prairie."[21]

Ethnic Origins of Canadians (1871−1921)
Ethnic
Origin
1871
[18]: 512 
1881
[18]: 512 
1901
[18]: 512 [22]: 370 [23]: 354 
1911
[18]: 512 [22]: 370 [23]: 354 
1921
[18]: 512 [23]: 356 
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
French 1,082,940 31.09% 1,298,929 30.03% 1,649,371 30.71% 2,061,719 28.61% 2,452,743 27.91%
Irish 846,414 24.3% 957,403 22.14% 988,721 18.41% 1,074,738 14.91% 1,107,803 12.61%
English 705,369 20.25% 881,301 20.38% 1,260,899 23.47% 1,871,268 25.97% 2,545,358 28.96%
Scottish 549,946 15.79% 699,863 16.18% 800,154 14.9% 1,027,015 14.25% 1,173,625 13.35%
German 202,991 5.83% 254,319 5.88% 310,601 5.78% 403,417 5.6% 294,635 3.35%
Indigenous 102,358 2.94% 108,547 2.51% 127,941 2.38% 105,611 1.47% 114,083 1.3%
Dutch 29,662 0.85% 30,412 0.7% 33,845 0.63% 55,961 0.78% 117,505 1.34%
African 21,496 0.62% 21,394 0.49% 17,437 0.32% 16,994 0.24% 18,291 0.21%
Other
British
7,773 0.22% 9,947 0.23% 13,421 0.25% 26,060 0.36% 41,932 0.48%
Scandinavian 1,623 0.05% 5,223 0.12% 31,042 0.58% 112,682 1.56% 167,369 1.9%
Italian 1,035 0.03% 1,849 0.04% 10,834 0.2% 45,963 0.64% 66,769 0.76%
Russian 607 0.02% 1,227 0.03% 19,825 0.37% 44,376 0.62% 100,064 1.14%
Jewish 125 0% 667 0.02% 16,131 0.3% 76,199 1.06% 126,196 1.44%
Chinese N/A N/A 4,383 0.1% 17,312 0.32% 27,831 0.39% 39,587 0.45%
Austrian N/A N/A N/A N/A 10,947 0.2% 44,036 0.61% 107,671 1.23%
Polish N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,285 0.12% 33,652 0.47% 53,403 0.61%
Ukrainian N/A N/A N/A N/A 5,682 0.11% 75,432 1.05% 108,721 1.24%
Japanese N/A N/A N/A N/A 4,738 0.09% 9,067 0.13% 15,868 0.18%
Swiss N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,866 0.07% 6,626 0.09% 12,837 0.15%
Belgian N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,994 0.06% 9,664 0.13% 20,234 0.23%
Finnish N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,502 0.05% 15,500 0.22% 21,494 0.24%
Syrian
Lebanese
Turkish
Armenian
N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,681 0.03% 3,880 0.05% 9,260 0.11%
Hungarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,549 0.03% 11,648 0.16% 13,181 0.15%
Bulgarian
Romanian
N/A N/A N/A N/A 334 0.01% 5,883 0.08% 15,235 0.17%
Greek N/A N/A N/A N/A 291 0.01% 3,614 0.05% 5,740 0.07%
Indian N/A N/A N/A N/A 100 0% 2,342 0.03% 1,018 0.01%
Czech
Slovak
N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 8,840 0.1%
Yugoslav N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,906 0.04%
Spanish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,208 0.03%
Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,970 0.02%
Portuguese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 487 0.01%
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 3,483,761 100% 4,324,810 100% 5,371,315 100% 7,206,643 100% 8,787,949 100%

Evolution from 1996 to 2016[edit]

As regards combined responses, Canadian is the most common ethnic origin (11,113,965) in the 2016 Census (see above). This was also the case in the 2011 NHS (10,563,805),[24] 2006 Census (10,066,290),[25] 2001 Census (11,682,680),[26] and the 1996 Census (8,806,975).[27] Canadian was also the most common single ethnic origin in the 1996 (5,326,995), 2001 (6,748,135), 2006 (5,748,725), 2011 (5,834,535), and 2016 (6,436,940).

Ethnic Origin (Single Responses), 1996-2016
1996[27] 2001[26] 2006[25] 2011[24] 2016[28]
# Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop.
1 Canadian 5,326,995 1 Canadian 6,748,135 1 Canadian 5,748,725 1 Canadian 5,834,535 1 Canadian 6,436,940
2 French 2,665,250 2 English 1,479,525 2 English 1,367,125 2 English 1,312,570 2 Chinese 1,439,980
3 English 2,048,275 3 French 1,060,760 3 French 1,230,535 3 Chinese 1,210,945 3 English 1,098,925
4 Chinese 800,470 4 Chinese 936,210 4 Chinese 1,135,365 4 French 1,165,465 4 Indian 1,096,850
5 Italian 729,455 5 Italian 726,275 5 Indian 780,175 5 Indian 919,155 5 French 1,006,180
6 German 726,145 6 German 705,600 6 Italian 741,045 6 Italian 700,845 6 Italian 695,415
7 Scottish 642,970 7 Scottish 607,235 7 German 670,640 7 German 608,520 7 Filipino 651,390
8 Irish 504,030 8 Indian 581,665 8 Scottish 568,515 8 Scottish 544,440 8 German 569,650
9 Indian 438,770 9 Irish 496,865 9 First Nations 512,150 9 First Nations 517,550 9 First Nations 526,570
10 First Nations 394,555 10 First Nations 455,805 10 Irish 491,030 10 Filipino 506,545 10 Scottish 475,575
11 Ukrainian 331,680 11 Ukrainian 326,195 11 Filipino 321,390 11 Irish 506,445 11 Irish 457,905
12 Dutch 313,880 12 Dutch 316,220 12 Dutch 303,400 12 Dutch 297,885 12 Dutch 289,675
13 Polish 265,930 13 Filipino 266,140 13 Ukrainian 300,590 13 Ukrainian 276,055 13 Ukrainian 273,810
14 Portuguese 252,640 14 Polish 260,415 14 Polish 269,375 14 Polish 255,135 14 Portuguese 264,815
15 Filipino 198,420 15 Portuguese 252,835 15 Portuguese 262,230 15 Portuguese 250,320 15 Polish 264,415
16 Jewish 195,810 16 Jewish 186,475 16 Greek 145,250 16 Vietnamese 157,450 16 Korean 177,925
17 Greek 144,940 17 Greek 143,785 17 Korean 137,790 17 Korean 154,355 17 Iranian 170,755
18 Jamaican 128,570 18 Jamaican 138,180 18 Vietnamese 136,445 18 Jamaican 142,870 18 Vietnamese 165,390
19 Vietnamese 110,390 19 Vietnamese 119,120 19 Jamaican 134,320 19 Greek 141,755 19 Jamaican 161,495
20 Hungarian 94,185 20 Korean 95,200 20 Jewish 134,045 20 Iranian 131,100 20 Pakistani 156,300


Ethnic Origin (Single and Multiple Responses), 1996-2016
1996[27] 2001[26] 2006[25] 2011[24] 2016[28]
# Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop. # Ethnic Origin Pop.
1 Canadian 8,806,275 1 Canadian 11,682,680 1 Canadian 10,066,290 1 Canadian 10,563,805 1 Canadian 11,135,965
2 English 6,832,095 2 English 5,978,875 2 English 6,570,015 2 English 6,509,500 2 English 6,320,085
3 French 5,597,845 3 French 4,668,410 3 French 4,941,210 3 French 5,065,690 3 Scottish 4,799,005
4 Scottish 4,260,840 4 Scottish 4,157,210 4 Scottish 4,719,850 4 Scottish 4,714,970 4 French 4,670,595
5 Irish 3,767,610 5 Irish 3,822,660 5 Irish 4,354,155 5 Irish 4,544,870 5 Irish 4,627,000
6 German 2,757,140 6 German 2,742,765 6 German 3,179,425 6 German 3,203,330 6 German 3,322,405
7 Italian 1,207,475 7 Italian 1,270,370 7 Italian 1,445,335 7 Italian 1,488,425 7 Chinese 1,769,195
8 Ukrainian 1,026,475 8 Chinese 1,094,700 8 Chinese 1,346,510 8 Chinese 1,487,580 8 Italian 1,587,970
9 Chinese 921,585 9 Ukrainian 1,071,060 9 North American Indian 1,253,615 9 First Nations 1,369,115 9 First Nations 1,525,570
10 Dutch 916,215 10 North American Indian 1,000,890 10 Ukrainian 1,209,085 10 Ukrainian 1,251,170 10 Indian 1,374,715
11 North American Indian 867,225 11 Dutch 923,310 11 Dutch 1,035,965 11 Indian 1,165,145 11 Ukrainian 1,359,655
12 Polish 786,735 12 Polish 817,085 12 Polish 984,565 12 Dutch 1,067,245 12 Dutch 1,111,655
13 Indian 548,080 13 Indian 713,330 13 Indian 962,665 13 Polish 1,010,705 13 Polish 1,106,585
14 Jewish 351,705 14 Norwegian 363,760 14 Russian 500,600 14 Filipino 662,600 14 Filipino 837,135
15 Norwegian 346,310 15 Portuguese 357,690 15 Welsh 440,965 15 British Isles, n.i.e. 576,030 15 British Isles, n.i.e. 644,695
16 Welsh 338,905 16 Welsh 350,365 16 Filipino 436,190 16 Russian 550,520 16 Russian 622,445
17 Portuguese 335,110 17 Jewish 348,605 17 Norwegian 432,515 17 Welsh 458,705 17 Métis 599,995
18 Swedish 278,975 18 Russian 337,960 18 Portuguese 410,850 18 Norwegian 452,705 18 Portuguese 482,605
19 Russian 272,335 19 Filipino 327,550 19 Métis 409,065 19 Métis 447,655 19 Welsh 474,805
20 Hungarian 250,525 20 Métis 307,845 20 British Isles, n.i.e. 403,915 20 Portuguese 429,850 20 Norwegian 463,275

Visible minority[edit]

Visible minority population by province and territory, 2016[29]
Province/territory South Asian Chinese Black Filipino Latin American Arab Southeast Asian West Asian Korean Japanese Visible minority, n.i.e. Multiple visible minorities Total visible minority population Total population Percent visible minority
Alberta[30] 230,930 158,200 129,390 166,195 55,090 56,700 43,985 20,980 21,275 12,165 9,900 28,360 933,165 3,978,145 23.46%
British Columbia[31] 365,705 508,480 43,500 145,025 44,115 19,840 54,920 48,695 60,495 41,230 8,760 40,465 1,381,235 4,560,240 30.29%
Manitoba[32] 42,060 22,540 30,335 79,815 9,895 5,030 8,565 2,695 4,375 1,850 3,195 6,485 216,850 1,240,700 17.48%
New Brunswick[33] 2,535 3,925 7,000 1,980 1,285 2,960 1,230 730 1,685 230 305 675 24,535 730,710 3.36%
Newfoundland and Labrador[34] 2,645 2,325 2,355 1,390 635 1,375 340 220 80 60 150 255 11,810 512,250 2.31%
Northwest Territories[35] 615 300 760 1,300 135 100 255 50 100 150 95 90 3,960 41,135 9.63%
Nova Scotia[36] 7,910 8,640 21,915 3,400 1,685 8,110 1,195 1,540 1,540 695 630 1,395 58,650 908,340 6.46%
Nunavut[37] 115 75 330 230 40 40 30 10 10 10 20 10 905 35,580 2.54%
Ontario[38] 1,150,415 754,550 527,715 311,675 195,950 210,435 133,855 154,670 88,935 30,830 97,970 128,585 3,885,585 13,242,160 29.34%
Prince Edward Island[39] 920 2,570 825 670 255 585 145 215 210 110 55 85 6,640 139,685 4.75%
Quebec[40] 90,335 99,505 319,230 34,910 133,920 213,740 62,820 32,405 8,055 4,570 9,840 23,045 1,032,365 7,965,450 12.96%
Saskatchewan[41] 19,960 15,545 14,925 32,340 4,195 4,300 5,745 2,065 1,875 955 1,150 2,820 115,875 1,070,560 10.82%
Yukon[42] 500 415 270 1,190 130 10 180 30 70 65 15 120 3,000 35,115 8.54%
Canada[43] 1,924,635 1,577,060 1,198,540 780,125 447,325 523,325 313,260 264,305 188,710 92,920 132,090 232,375 7,674,580 34,460,065 22.27%
Visible minority in Canadian cities over 100,000 people, 2016[44]
City Population Visible minority Black East Asian Latin American South Asian Southeast Asian West Asian Arab Multiracial Other
Toronto 2,731,571 51.5% 8.9% 13.2% 2.9% 12.6% 7.2% 2.2% 1.3% 1.8% 1.4%
Montreal 1,704,694 34.2% 10.3% 3.7% 4.1% 3.3% 3.5% 0.9% 7.3% 0.7% 0.3%
Calgary 1,239,220 36.2% 4.2% 8.5% 2.1% 9.5% 7.3% 1.0% 2.0% 1.1% 0.4%
Ottawa 934,243 26.3% 6.6% 5.1% 1.2% 4.2% 2.7% 1.0% 4.5% 0.9% 0.3%
Edmonton 932,546 37.1% 5.9% 7.3% 1.9% 9.5% 7.7% 0.7% 2.6% 1.1% 0.4%
Mississauga 721,599 57.2% 6.6% 8.7% 2.3% 23.2% 7.2% 1.1% 5.1% 1.9% 1.3%
Winnipeg 705,224 28.0% 3.9% 3.6% 1.0% 5.4% 11.8% 0.4% 0.7% 0.9% 0.4%
Vancouver 631,486 51.6% 1.0% 30.2% 1.8% 6.0% 8.7% 1.4% 0.5% 1.8% 0.2%
Brampton 593,638 73.3% 13.9% 1.7% 2.4% 44.3% 4.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.6% 2.7%
Hamilton 536,917 19.0% 3.8% 2.5% 1.6% 4.2% 2.8% 0.9% 2.0% 0.7% 0.5%
Quebec City 531,902 6.4% 2.4% 0.5% 1.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.1%
Surrey 517,887 58.5% 1.8% 7.8% 1.4% 32.8% 8.8% 0.7% 1.1% 1.2% 0.4%
Laval 422,993 26.1% 7.8% 1.0% 3.1% 2.1% 2.1% 1.0% 8.2% 0.3% 0.1%
Halifax 403,131 11.4% 3.8% 2.2% 0.3% 1.6% 0.9% 0.3% 1.8% 0.3% 0.1%
London 383,822 19.9% 3.0% 3.8% 2.4% 3.1% 2.1% 0.9% 3.6% 0.6% 0.4%
Markham 328,966 77.9% 2.9% 46.8% 0.5% 17.8% 3.8% 2.4% 1.0% 2.1% 0.9%
Vaughan 306,233 35.4% 2.7% 8.7% 2.4% 10.1% 5.1% 2.9% 1.4% 1.4% 0.8%
Gatineau 276,245 13.5% 6.1% 1.0% 1.5% 0.4% 0.7% 0.3% 3.1% 0.3% 0.2%
Longueuil 239,700 18.6% 7.0% 1.4% 3.1% 0.8% 1.3% 0.8% 3.2% 0.4% 0.3%
Burnaby 232,755 63.6% 1.6% 38.9% 2.0% 8.1% 7.7% 2.2% 0.7% 2.1% 0.3%
Saskatoon 246,376 19.8% 2.2% 3.6% 0.8% 5.5% 5.4% 0.5% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2%
Kitchener 233,222 21.8% 4.1% 2.6% 2.6% 5.0% 2.9% 1.2% 1.8% 0.8% 0.8%
Windsor 217,188 26.9% 5.0% 3.6% 1.2% 4.5% 3.0% 0.6% 7.5% 0.9% 0.6%
Regina 215,106 19.2% 3.0% 6.2% 0.6% 5.9% 5.2% 0.3% 0.7% 0.4% 0.2%
Richmond 198,309 76.3% 0.6% 55.6% 0.8% 7.3% 7.9% 0.6% 0.8% 2.4% 0.2%
Richmond Hill 195,022 60.0% 2.0% 32.5% 0.8% 7.7% 2.7% 10.4% 1.8% 1.6% 0.4%
Oakville 193,832 30.8% 2.9% 9.0% 1.9% 8.9% 2.4% 1.1% 3.2% 1.0% 0.4%
Burlington 183,314 16.0% 2.1% 2.9% 1.3% 4.8% 2.0% 0.6% 1.4% 0.6% 0.4%
Greater Sudbury 161,531 3.8% 0.9% 0.7% 0.2% 0.9% 0.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.1% 0.0%
Sherbrooke 161,323 7.3% 2.2% 0.4% 1.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.8% 1.2% 0.2% 0.0%
Oshawa 159,458 16.0% 5.5% 2.0% 0.8% 3.8% 1.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 0.8%
Saguenay 145,949 1.4% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0%
Lévis 143,414 2.2% 0.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%
Barrie 141,434 10.3% 2.7% 1.8% 1.1% 2.2% 1.4% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3%
Abbotsford 141,397 33.7% 1.0% 3.0% 0.8% 25.5% 2.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2%
St. Catharines 133,113 12.7% 2.9% 2.7% 1.7% 1.4% 1.8% 0.3% 1.1% 0.7% 0.2%
Trois-Rivières 134,413 3.5% 1.4% 0.3% 0.8% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0%
Cambridge 129,920 15.6% 2.5% 1.4% 1.3% 6.2% 2.1% 0.3% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
Coquitlam 139,284 50.2% 1.1% 29.3% 1.6% 4.5% 5.2% 5.6% 1.0% 1.7% 0.2%
Kingston 123,798 9.7% 1.5% 2.7% 0.7% 2.0% 1.1% 0.4% 0.8% 0.4% 0.1%
Whitby 128,377 25.3% 8.0% 3.1% 1.1% 6.6% 2.4% 1.0% 0.8% 1.5% 0.9%
Guelph 131,794 18.8% 2.2% 3.6% 1.0% 5.0% 4.1% 1.2% 0.6% 0.9% 0.2%
Kelowna 127,380 9.5% 0.8% 2.9% 0.6% 2.6% 1.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2%
Saanich 114,148 22.1% 1.0% 10.5% 0.7% 5.0% 3.0% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 0.2%
Ajax 119,677 56.7% 16.7% 3.2% 1.4% 20.9% 5.3% 2.4% 1.7% 2.4% 2.7%
Thunder Bay 107,909 4.5% 0.6% 1.1% 0.3% 0.9% 0.8% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.0%
Terrebonne 111,575 11.8% 4.5% 0.4% 1.7% 0.1% 0.6% 0.1% 1.7% 0.1% 0.0%
St. John's 108,860 7.0% 1.4% 1.6% 0.5% 1.5% 0.7% 0.2% 1.0% 0.1% 0.1%
Langley 117,285 18.7% 1.0% 8.0% 0.9% 4.4% 3.0% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.1%
Chatham-Kent 101,647 4.6% 2.1% 0.6% 0.2% 0.6% 0.5% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
Milton 110,128 42.8% 4.8% 3.1% 2.4% 21.0% 4.7% 0.9% 3.5% 1.4% 0.9%
Waterloo 104,986 26.4% 1.9% 10.6% 1.4% 6.4% 1.7% 1.1% 1.8% 0.9% 0.6%
Delta 102,238 36.0% 0.8% 9.2% 0.8% 20.3% 3.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.8% 0.3%
Red Deer 100,418 15.5% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 1.7% 7.0% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.1%

Aboriginal population[edit]

Total aboriginal population
Group 1996[45] 2001[46] 2006[47] 2011[48] 2016[49]
% Total % Total % Total % Total % Total
Total Aboriginal 2.8% 799,005 3.3% 976,305 3.8% 1,172,785 4.3% 1,400,685 4.9% 1,673,780
First Nations 1.8% 529,040 2.1% 608,850 2.2% 698,025 2.6% 851,560 2.8% 977,230
Métis 0.7% 204,115 1.0% 292,305 1.2% 389,780 1.4% 451,795 1.7% 587,545
Inuit 0.14% 40,220 0.16% 50,485 0.2% 59,445 0.2% 65,025

Note: Inuit, other Aboriginal and mixed Aboriginal groups are not listed as their own, but they are all accounted for in total Aboriginal

Aboriginal population by province and territory, 2011[50]
Province/territory Not Aboriginal First Nations Métis Inuit Aboriginal, n.i.e. Multiple Aboriginal identities Total Aboriginal population Total population
Alberta[51] 2,690,960 116,670 96,870 1,985 3,300 1,870 220,695 3,567,980
British Columbia[52] 2,911,295 155,020 69,475 1,570 3,745 2,480 232,290 4,324,455
Manitoba[53] 824,830 114,225 78,830 580 1,055 1,200 195,895 1,174,350
New Brunswick[54] 696,080 16,120 4,850 485 1,020 150 22,620 735,835
Newfoundland and Labrador[55] 464,540 19,315 7,660 6,265 2,300 260 35,800 507,270
Northwest Territories[56] 16,920 13,350 3,250 4,335 185 45 21,160 40,800
Nova Scotia[57] 825,055 21,895 10,050 695 980 225 33,850 906,175
Nunavut[58] 3,825 125 130 27,070 15 20 27,365 31,700
Ontario[59] 9,070,800 201,100 86,020 3,355 8,040 2,910 301,430 12,651,795
Prince Edward Island[60] 130,890 1,520 410 55 235 0 2,230 137,380
Quebec[61] 6,740,375 82,425 40,960 12,570 4,415 1,545 141,915 7,732,525
Saskatchewan[62] 787,745 103,205 52,450 290 1,120 675 157,740 1,008,760
Yukon[63] 23,590 6,585 845 175 70 25 7,705 33,320
Canada[64] 25,186,890 851,560 451,795 59,440 26,475 11,415 1,400,685 32,852,325
City Population Total Aboriginal First Nations Métis
Toronto 2,576,025 0.7% 0.5% 0.2%
Montreal 1,612,640 0.6% 0.3% 0.2%
Calgary 1,082,235 2.7% 1.2% 1.4%
Ottawa 867,090 2.1% 1.2% 0.7%
Edmonton 795,675 5.3% 2.4% 2.7%
Mississauga 708,725 0.5% 0.3% 0.1%
Winnipeg 649,995 11.7% 5.9% 6.3%
Vancouver 590,210 2.0% 1.3% 0.6%
Brampton 521,315 0.7% 0.4% 0.2%
Hamilton 509,640 2.0% 1.6% 0.3%
Quebec City 502,595 0.9% 0.5% 0.4%
Surrey 463,340 2.9% 1.9% 1.0%
Laval 392,725 0.6% 0.3% 0.2%
Halifax 384,330 2.5% 1.5% 0.8%
London 360,715 1.9% 1.4% 0.4%
Markham 300,135 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
Vaughan 286,305 0.2% 0.1% 0.0%
Gatineau 261,665 3.5% 1.8% 1.5%
Longueuil 227,970 1.0% 0.6% 0.0%
Burnaby 220,255 1.5% 0.9% 0.5%
Saskatoon 218,315 10.2% 4.9% 4.6%
Kitchener 215,950 1.5% 0.9% 0.5%
Windsor 208,015 2.3% 1.3% 0.9%
Regina 189,740 9.9% 5.8% 3.9%
Richmond 189,305 1.0% 0.7% 0.3%
Richmond Hill 184,370 0.2% 0.1% 0.0%
Oakville 180,430 0.6% 0.4% 0.2%
Burlington 173,495 0.9% 0.5% 0.3%
Greater Sudbury 157,765 8.2% 3.8% 4.1%
Sherbrooke 150,255 0.9% 0.5% 0.3%
Oshawa 147,680 2.0% 1.2% 0.8%
Saguenay 141,335 2.5% 0.8% 1.6%
Lévis 135,835 0.5% 0.2% 0.2%
Barrie 133,240 2.6% 1.4% 1.2%
Abbotsford 130,950 4.0% 2.5% 1.6%
St. Catharines 128,770 1.9% 1.2% 0.6%
Trois-Rivières 126,980 1.1% 0.6% 0.4%
Cambridge 125,060 2.0% 1.2% 0.6%
Coquitlam 125,015 2.1% 1.1% 0.9%
Kingston 118,930 2.9% 2.0% 0.8%
Whitby 120,285 1.2% 0.7% 0.4%
Guelph 120,550 1.6% 1.0% 0.6%
Kelowna 114,570 4.5% 2.1% 2.3%
Saanich 107,855 2.7% 1.5% 1.1%
Ajax 109,220 1.0% 0.7% 0.3%
Thunder Bay 105,950 9.5% 7.3% 2.0%
Terrebonne 105,610 0.7% 0.5% 0.1%
St. John's 103,905 2.6% 1.2% 0.8%
Langley 103,145 3.4% 1.6% 1.7%
Chatham-Kent 101,680 2.9% 1.7% 0.9%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The 2021 census on ethnic or cultural origins, Statistics Canada states: "Given the fluid nature of this concept and the changes made to this question, 2021 Census data on ethnic or cultural origins are not comparable to data from previous censuses and should not be used to measure the growth or decline of the various groups associated with these origins".[2]
  2. ^ a b All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws. "Canadian" as an ethnic group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestral origin or descent. "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire.[4] "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones) and no longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage."[5][6]
  3. ^ Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority in Statistics Canada calculations. Visible minorities are defined by Statistics Canada as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[11]
  4. ^ The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group (excluding Inuit and Métis).
    Source: "How Statistics Canada Identifies Aboriginal Peoples". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 16, 2011.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Population and growth components (1851–2001 Censuses)". Statistics Canada. 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  2. ^ a b c d Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "The Canadian census: A rich portrait of the country's religious and ethnocultural diversity". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  3. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "Ethnic or cultural origin by gender and age: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  4. ^ Simon, Patrick; Piché, Victor (2013). Accounting for Ethnic and Racial Diversity: The Challenge of Enumeration. Routledge. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-1-317-98108-4.
  5. ^ Bezanson, Kate; Webber, Michelle (2016). Rethinking Society in the 21st Century (4th ed.). Canadian Scholars' Press. pp. 455–456. ISBN 978-1-55130-936-1.
  6. ^ Edmonston, Barry; Fong, Eric (2011). The Changing Canadian Population. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 294–296. ISBN 978-0-7735-3793-4.
  7. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Canada [Country] Total - Ethnic or cultural origin for the population in private households - 25% sample data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  8. ^ a b "The Daily — The Canadian census: A rich portrait of the country's religious and ethnocultural diversity". Statistics Canada. 2022-10-26. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
  9. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-10-26). "Visible minority and population group by generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
  10. ^ "The Daily — Indigenous population continues to grow and is much younger than the non-Indigenous population, although the pace of growth has slowed". Statistics Canada. 2022-09-21. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
  11. ^ "Classification of visible minority". Statistics Canada. July 25, 2008. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
  12. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Archived from the original on October 15, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2018.
  13. ^ Pendakur, Krishna. "Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market". Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  14. ^ "The Daily — Immigrants make up the largest share of the population in over 150 years and continue to shape who we are as Canadians". Statistics Canada. 2022-10-26. Retrieved 2022-10-29.
  15. ^ "2021 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration". Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. 2022-03-15.
  16. ^ Source: "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada – Data table". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-16. Additional data: "2006 Census release topics". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-16.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca. 25 October 2017.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-04-03). "Seventh census of Canada, 1931 . v. 13. Monographs - unemployment, dependency of youth, rural and urban composition of the Canadian population, racial origins and nativity of the Canadian people". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-11-07.
  19. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (17 May 2018). "150 years of immigration in Canada". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-11-09.
  20. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013). "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Retrieved 2022-11-09.
  21. ^ Day, Richard J.F. (2000). Multiculturalism and the History of Canadian Diversity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 149-150.
  22. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-04-03). "Fifth census of Canada 1911 . v. 2. Religions, origins, birthplace, citizenship, literacy and infirmities, by provinces, districts and sub-districts". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-11-07.
  23. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-04-03). "Sixth census of Canada,1921 . v. 1. Population: number, sex and distribution, racial origins, religions". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-11-07.
  24. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-05-08). "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  25. ^ a b c Government of Canada (2008-04-02). "Statistics Canada: Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables, 2006 Census". Statitics Canada. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  26. ^ a b c "English title / Titre en anglais". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  27. ^ a b c Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (1998-02-17). "1996 Census of Canada: Data tables – Population by Ethnic Origin (188) and Sex (3), Showing Single and Multiple Responses (3), for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 1996 Census (20% Sample Data)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  28. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2017-10-25). "Ethnic Origin (279), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age (12) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-09-21.
  29. ^ "File Not Found". Statistics Canada.
  30. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  31. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  32. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  33. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  34. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  35. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  36. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  37. ^ Statistics Canada, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]