Energy law includes the legal provision for oil, gasoline, and "extraction taxes." The practice of energy law includes contracts for siting, extraction, licenses for the acquisition and ownership rights in oil and gas both under the soil before discovery and after its capture, and adjudication regarding those rights.
Canada's energy laws are so extensive and complicated in large part because of its government-owned energy resources:
The oil sands are gold not only for the oil companies, but also for Alberta's provincial government, which owns the mineral rights to virtually all the land and has encouraged the industry for three-quarters of a century.
Germany's renewable energy law mandates the use of renewable energy through its taxes and tariffs. It promotes the development of renewable energy sources via a system of feed-in tariffs. It regulates the amount of energy generated by the producer and the type of renewable energy source. It also creates an incentive to encourage technological advancements and costs. The results have been startling: on 6 June 2014, more than half of the nation's energy used on that date came from solar power. Despite regulatory processes adding more renewable energy to its energy mix, Germany's electric grid has become more reliable, not less.
The German government has proposed abandoning "its planned phase-out of nuclear energy to help rein in surging electricity prices and protect the environment, according to proposals drawn up by an energy task force under Economy Minister Michael Glos." The German Green Party has opposed nuclear energy, as well as the market power of German utilities, claiming the "energy shortfall" has been artificially created.
There is significant academic interest in German energy law. A chart summarizing German energy legislation is available.
Italy has few natural resources. lacking substantial deposits of iron, coal, or oil. Proven natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic, constitute the country's most important mineral resource. More than 80% of the country's energy sources are imported. The energy sector is highly dependent on imports from abroad: in 2006 the country imported more than 86% of its total energy consumption.
In 1987, after the Chernobyl disaster, a large majority of Italians passed a referendum opting for phasing out nuclear power. The government responded by closing existing nuclear power plants and completely putting a halt to the national nuclear program. Italy also imports about 16% of its electricity need from France for 6.5 GWe, which makes it the world's biggest importer of electricity. Due to its reliance on expensive fossil fuels and imports, Italians pay approximately 45% more than the EU average for electricity.
In 2004, a new Energy Law brought the possibility of joint ventures with foreign companies to build nuclear power plants and import electricity. In 2005, Italy's power company, ENEL made an agreement with Electricite de France for 200 MWe from a nuclear reactor in France and potentially an additional 1,000 MWe from new construction. As part of the agreement, ENEL received a 12.5% stake in the project and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants. In another move, ENEL also bought 66% of the Slovak Electric utility that operates six nuclear reactors. As part of this agreement, ENEL will pay the Slovak government EUR 1.6 billion to complete a nuclear power plant in Mochovce, which has a gross output of 942 MWe. With these agreements, Italy has managed to access nuclear power without placing reactors on Italian territory.
In Ukraine, renewable energy projects are supported by a feed-in tariff system. The law of Ukraine "On alternative sources of energy" refers to alternative energy sources: solar, wind, geothermal, hydrothermal, marine and hydrokinetic energy, hydroelectricity, biomass, landfill biogas and others. Ukrainian National Energy and Utilities Regulatory Commission and State Agency on Energy Efficiency and Energy Saving of Ukraine are the main renewable energy regulation authorities. Reforms have been made by Ukrainian government in alternative energy sphere. There is a need of energy savings services in Ukraine. Its potential reaches about 5 billion EUR only in state-owned buildings.
The Israel Energy Sources Law, 5750-1989 ("Energy Law"), defines what is considered as "energy" and "energy source" and its purpose is to regulate the exploitation of energy sources whilst ensuring the efficiently of its use.
Under the Energy Law, certain regulation methods of measurement have been nominated by the Israel legislature in order to regulate the efficiency of the use of the energy source. In addition to which entity shall be entitled to the pursuit and use of such sources.
Furthermore, in Israel there are certain additional laws that deal with the use of energy sources, such as the Natural Gas Sector Law, 5762-2002 which provides the conditions for the development of the natural gas sphere in Israel, and the Electricity Sector Law, 5756–1996, which established the "Public Utility Authority – Electricity" which publishes directives and regulations for the use of renewable electricity sources, including solar energy and hydro-energy.
The 2011 earthquake and tsunami caused the failure of cooling systems at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant on March 11 and a nuclear emergency was declared. 140,000 residents were evacuated. The total amount of radioactive material released is unclear, as the crisis is ongoing. On 6 May 2011, Prime Minister Naoto Kan ordered the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant be shut down as an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 or higher is likely to hit the area within the next 30 years.
Problems in stabilizing the Fukushima I nuclear plant had hardened attitudes to nuclear power. As of June 2011, "more than 80 percent of Japanese now say they are anti-nuclear and distrust government information on radiation".
As of October 2011, there have been electricity shortages, but Japan survived the summer without the extensive blackouts that had been predicted. An energy white paper, approved by the Japanese Cabinet in October 2011, says "public confidence in safety of nuclear power was greatly damaged" by the Fukushima disaster, and calls for a reduction in the nation's reliance on nuclear power.
Many of Japan's nuclear plants have been closed, or their operation has been suspended for safety inspections. The last of Japan's 54 reactors (Tomari-3) went offline for maintenance on May 5, 2012., leaving Japan completely without nuclear-produced electrical power for the first time since 1970. Despite protests, on 1 July 2012 unit 3 of the Ōi Nuclear Power Plant was restarted. As of September 2012, Ōi units 3 and 4 are Japan's only operating nuclear power plants, although the city and prefecture of Osaka have requested they be shut down.
The United States-Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan is a bilateral agreement aimed at putting in place a framework for the joint research and development of nuclear energy technology, which was signed on April 18, 2007. It is believed that the agreement is the first that the US has signed to develop nuclear power technologies with another country, although Japan has agreements with Australia, Canada, China, France, and the United Kingdom. Under the plan, the United States and Japan would each conduct research into fast reactor technology, fuel cycle technology, advanced computer simulation and modeling, small and medium reactors, safeguards and physical protection; and nuclear waste management, which it to be coordinated by a joint steering committee. The treaty's progress has been in limbo since the Fukushima I nuclear accidents.
Philippines law has provisions concerning energy, fossil fuels, and renewable energy. Energy law in the Philippines is important because that nation is one of the fastest growing in Asia, and has over 80 million residents.
The first hydroelectric power law dates from 1933, and have been updated since, including one that created the National Power Corporation, and has been amended several times through 1967. The Renewable Energy Law (2009) encourages the development and use of non-traditional energy sources.
Saudi Arabia has some laws concerning energy, especially oil and gas law. Saudi Arabia is the largest oil producer in the world and therefore its energy law has great influence over the world's overall energy supply.
Under the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia, all its oil and gas wealth belongs to the government: "All Allah's bestowed wealth, be it under the ground, on the surface or in national territorial waters, in the land or maritime domains under the state's control, are the property of the state as defined by law. The law defines means of exploiting, protecting, and developing such wealth in the interests of the state, its security, and economy." Energy taxes are also specifically allowed; Article 20 of the basic law states, "Taxes and fees are to be imposed on a basis of justice and only when the need for them arises. Imposition, amendment, revocation, and exemption are only permitted by law."
Two ministries of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia share the responsibility of the energy sector: the Ministry of Oil and the Ministry of Water and Electricity. The country's laws have also established other agencies that have some legal powers, but are not strictly regulatory. These include Saudi Aramco, originally a joint venture between the Kingdom and the California-Arabian Standard Oil, but now wholly owned by the Kingdom, and Saudi Consolidated Electricity Companies (SCECOs).
Nigeria is the largest oil producer in Africa and is the 11th largest producer in the world. The energy law in the country covers oil and gas, and other sources of power generation. It also has a strong law and policy in the renewable energy source of power generation in the country. The rural electrification project has also taken root in the energy law in the country.
Turkey's old Petroleum Law was in effect for 70 years until 2013, when it enacted a new Petroleum Law, number 6491. Amongst other provisions, it extends the permissible years for drilling permits, reduces a fee, and eliminates a state monopoly.
^International Energy Law and Taxation Review (Int Energ Law Taxat Rev)
Published by Sweet & Maxwell. ISSN1472-4529. Found at Journal seek website. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
^Catherine Redgwell, Course Syllabus, "International energy law," Course Code: LAWSG086, Masters of Law (LLM) at UCL, found at UCL websiteArchived 2009-03-21 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
^Farah, Paolo Davide; Cima, Elena (September 2013). "Energy Trade and the WTO: Implications for Renewable Energy and the OPEC Cartel". Journal of International Economic Law. 16 (3): 707–740. doi:10.1093/jiel/jgt024. SSRN2330416.
^David Osigbernhe Iyalomh, Thesis, "Environmental Regulation of the Oil and Gas Industry in Nigeria: Lessons from Alberta's Experience," (University of Alberta 1998), found at national Library of Canada website. (.pdf) Retrieved March 10, 2009.
^Robert Kunzig, "The Canadian Oil Boom: Scraping Bottom: Once considered too expensive, as well as too damaging to the land, exploitation of Alberta's oil sands is now a gamble worth billns," National Geographic, March 2009, pp. 1, 34–59, quote at 49 (photographs by Peter Essick).
^Katrina Kieltyka, "Sierra Club fighting plan to buy Canadian power: Say hydroelectric dams would harm indigenous people," Legislative Gazette, March 16, 2009, p. 21, available at Legislative Gazette archivesArchived March 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (.pdf file). Retrieved March 20, 2009.
^Terence Daintith and Leigh Hancher, Energy strategy in Europe: the legal framework, pp. 3, 16, 26, 37–9, 97–8, 102. (European University Institute, Series A, Volume 4) (Walter de Gruyter, 1986) ISBN978-0-89925-173-8. Found at Google Books. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
^Energetikos teisė on Lithuanian Wikipedia, citing B.Pranevičienė, S.Milčiuvienė, "Kainų teisinio reguliavimo aktualijos Lietuvos elektros energijos rinkoje, Jurisprudencija: mokslo darbai." (Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universitetas 2 (80) tomas, 2006), p. 60–73. Retrieved March 30, 2009.