The Education Act 1646 was an Act of the Parliament of Scotland (1646 c.46) that ordered locally funded, Church-supervised schools to be established in every parish in Scotland. It was passed by the Parliament at St. Andrews on 2 February 1646 in the reign of Charles I, titled "Act for founding of schools in every parish."
The act reflected the current status of the ongoing Episcopalian-Presbyterian power struggle by specifying school supervision by presbyteries (the Presbyterian view; the Episcopalian view was supervision by bishops).
This act had the same purpose as the Education Act 1633, which had been only partially successful because it had required the consent of those paying the tax, or of members of the congregation. That consent was not always given, but this act allowed the presbytery to ensure that it was done, and placed stiff penalties on those who did not comply. However, this act (of 1646) was passed amidst the tumult of the civil wars, and was rescinded in 1661 when the political winds shifted with the Restoration, so it never had the opportunity to become effective. It would be passed again 50 years later (Education Act of 1696), with little changed but the use of more modern (i.e. 50 years later) wording.