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Constitution of Taiwan Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Taiwan

Additional Articles of
the Constitution of
the Republic of China
Overview
Original title中華民國憲法增修條文
JurisdictionFree area of the Republic of China
Ratified22 April 1991; 31 years ago (1991-04-22)
Date effective1 May 1991; 31 years ago (1991-05-01)
SystemUnitary semi-presidential republic
Government structure
BranchesFive (Executive, Legislative, Judicial, Examination, Control)
Head of statePresident
ChambersUnicameral
(Legislative Yuan)
ExecutiveExecutive Yuan
led by the Premier
JudiciaryJudicial Yuan
FederalismUnitary
Electoral collegeNo
History
First legislature
First executiveMay 20, 1996 (President)
Amendments7
Last amendedJune 10, 2005
Commissioned byNational Assembly
Signatories457 of the 583 remaining delegates, in Taipei
(most delegates elected in 1947, with some elected in 1969 and 1986)
SupersedesMost articles of the original Constitution of the Republic of China
Additional Articles of
the Constitution of
the Republic of China
Traditional Chinese中華民國憲法
增修條文
Simplified Chinese中华民国宪法
增修条文

The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China are the revisions and constitutional amendments to the original constitution to meet the requisites of the nation and the political status of Taiwan "prior to national unification". The Additional Articles are usually attached after the original constitution as a separate document. It also has its own preamble and article ordering different from the original constitution.[1]

The Additional Articles are the fundamental law of the present government of the Republic of China on Taiwan since 1991, last amended in 2005.

Features[edit]

Free area[edit]

The territory controlled by the Government of the Republic of China changed significantly after the Chinese Civil War, and the Republic of China could not hold elections in territories it did not control. Thus, the Additional Articles of the Constitution defines the Free Area (Chinese: 自由地區, Mandarin: Zìyóu Dìqū, Taiwanese: Chū-iû Tē-khu, Hakka: Chhṳ-yù Thi-khî) to be the territory and the people under the government's effective jurisdiction. Whilst all residents of China are nominally citizens of the Republic,[citation needed] only the citizens who have the right to abode in the Free Area may exercise the full civil and political rights, including right of abode and suffrage.

Direct presidential election[edit]

The Additional Articles requires direct election of the President by the citizens of the free area.[2] The first direct presidential election was held in 1996. Under the original constitution, the President was elected indirectly by the National Assembly.

Government reform and reorganization[edit]

The Additional Articles of the Constitution reformed the government of the Republic of China from a parliamentary system to a de facto semi-presidential system. The National Assembly is de facto abolished, and its functions are exercised directly by the citizens of the Free area. The five-power governmental structure is retained, though it functions closer to the traditional Western trias politica in practice.

Constitutional referendum[edit]

The Additional Articles were ratified on June 7, 2005, a constitutional amendment or an alteration of the national territory has to be ratified by more than half (50%) of voters of the Free Area in a referendum after passed in the Legislative Yuan with a three-quarters majority. Before that, constitutional amendments and national territory alterations were ratified by the National Assembly.

Comparison of the governmental structure[edit]

Most of the amendments brought by the Additional Articles focuses on the mechanism of separation of powers among central governmental organs. The Additional Articles changed the form of government from parliamentary system to semi-presidential system, enhance the implementation of direct democracy and direct election, reduce the chambers of parliament, and simplify the hierarchy of local governments.[3]

Governmental structure Additional Articles (2005) Original Constitution (1947)
Form of government Semi-presidential republic Parliamentary republic
Head of state The president is elected directly by the citizens of the free area (Taiwan) to a four(4)-year term, may be re-elected once. The president is elected indirectly by the National Assembly to a six(6)-year term, may be re-elected once.
Head of government The premier is appointed by the president. The Legislative Yuan may vote for motion of no confidence. The premier is nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan.
Parliament Unicameralism: Legislative Yuan
  • Members of the Legislative Yuan are elected directly by the citizens of the free area (Taiwan) to a four(4)-year term.
Tricameralism: National Assembly, Legislative Yuan, and Control Yuan
  • Delegates of the National Assembly are elected directly by the citizens to a six(6)-year term.
  • Members of the Legislative Yuan are elected directly by the citizens to a three(3)-year term.
  • Members of the Control Yuan are elected indirectly by provincial legislators to a six(6)-year term.
Judiciary The justices are nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan to an eight(8)-year term. The justices are nominated and appointed by the president, with the consent of the Control Yuan to a nine(9)-year term.
Local government The provinces are streamlined. Counties and cities under provinces are subordinated directly to the central government. Two level system: provincial Level, county Level

Articles[edit]

The Additional Articles of the Constitution has been amended seven times since the 1990s.

Amendment Process Note
1st Apr 22, 1991 Ratified by 1st National Assembly Delegates elected in 1947, 1969, and 1986. In the 583 delegates, 470 attended, 457 agreed.
May 1, 1991 Promulgated by 8th President Lee Teng-hui Additional Articles established
2nd May 27, 1992 Ratified by 2nd National Assembly Delegates elected in 1986 and 1991. In the 403 delegates, 285 attended, 277 agreed.
May 28, 1992 Promulgated by 8th President Lee Teng-hui
3rd Jul 28, 1994 Ratified by 2nd National Assembly Delegates elected in 1991. In the 321 delegates, 220 attended, 215 agreed.
Aug 1, 1994 Promulgated by 8th President Lee Teng-hui
4th Jul 18, 1997 Ratified by 3rd National Assembly Delegates elected in 1996. In the 333 delegates, 269 attended, 261 agreed.
Jul 21, 1997 Promulgated by 9th President Lee Teng-hui
5th Sep 3, 1999 Ratified by 3rd National Assembly Delegates elected in 1996. In the 315 delegates, 214 attended, 211 agreed.
Sep 15, 1999 Promulgated by 9th President Lee Teng-hui
Mar 24, 2000 Voided by Justices of the Judicial Yuan Constitutional Interpretation No. 499
6th Apr 24, 2000 Ratified by 3rd National Assembly Delegates elected in 1996. In the 314 delegates, 287 attended, 285 agreed.
Apr 25, 2000 Promulgated by 9th President Lee Teng-hui
7th Aug 23, 2004 Proposed by 5th Legislative Yuan Members elected in 2001. In the 225 members, 198 attended, 198 agreed.
Jun 7, 2005 Ratified by the National Assembly Delegates elected in 2005. In the 300 delegates, 298 attended, 249 agreed.
Jun 10, 2005 Promulgated by 11th President Chen Shui-bian Currently in force
—— Mar 25, 2022 Proposed by 10th Legislative Yuan Members elected in 2020. In the 113 members, 109 attended, 109 agreed.
Nov 26, 2022 To be voted in national referendum 2022 Taiwanese constitutional referendum

Current Additional Articles of the Constitution contains 12 articles:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]