Chhayavaad Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chhayavaad

Chhayavad (Hindi: छायावाद) (approximated in English as "Romanticism", literally "Shaded") refers to the era of Neo-romanticism in Hindi literature, particularly Hindi poetry, 1922–1938,[1] and was marked by an upsurge of romantic and humanist content. Chhayavad was marked by a renewed sense of the self and personal expression, visible in the writings of time. It is known for its leaning towards themes of love and nature, as well as an individualistic reappropriation of the Indian tradition in a new form of mysticism, expressed through a subjective voice.


In, Chhayavad Yug is 1918 to 1937, and is preceded by Bharatendu Yug (1868–1900), and Dwivedi Yug (1900–1918), and is in turn, followed by the Contemporary Period, 1937 onwards.[1][2]

Chhayavad continued till later half of the 1930s, when the golden era of modern Hindi poetry was gradually replaced by social didacticism inspired by the uprising nationalist fervour, when some of the later poets of this era, like Dinkar, Mahadevi and Bachchan took nationalist and social critiquing within their poetry.

Notable authors[edit]

Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Sumitranandan Pant and Mahadevi Varma[3] are considered as the four pillars of Chhayavadi school of Hindi literature. Other important figures of this literary movement were Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Makhanlal Chaturvedi and Pandit Narendra Sharma.

Though Harivansh Rai Bachchan became excessively critical of Chhayavad later in his career and was associated with other genres like Rahasyavaad, Pragativaad and Haalaavaad.

Notable works[edit]

Jaishankar Prasad's Kamayani (1936) is considered an important magnum opus of this school, followed by Mahadevi Varma's, Nihar (Mist, 1930), Harivansh Rai Bachchan's, Madhushala (1935).

Criticism of Chhayavad[edit]

When it arrived, Chhayavad was very well received by readers and critics alike. However, subsequent scholars have criticized Chhayavad for excessive use of decorative language, romanticism aloof from contemporary social and economic malaise and setting stricter rules on meter, rhyme etc.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b Hindi Language
  2. ^ Historical Development of Hindi Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  3. ^ "Chhayavaadi Movement". Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2008.