Brannon Masculinity Scale Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brannon_Masculinity_Scale

The Brannon Masculinity Scale (BMS) is a self-report measure of endorsement of masculine norms.[1] It was developed by Robert Brannon and Samuel Juni in 1984.[2]

The BMS has the following scales:[3]

  • Avoiding femininity (16 items)
  • Concealing emotions (16 items)
  • Being the breadwinner (15 items)
  • Being admired and respected (16 items)
  • Toughness (16 items)
  • The male machine (16 items)
  • Violence and adventure (15 items)

All 110 items of the inventory consist of sentences anchored with a male noun (e.g. "A man always deserves the respect of his wife and children"). All items are rated on a 7-point Likert Scale from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree".

Apart from this full 110 item form, a shorter 58 item form of the BMS exists and scores on this scale are highly correlated with those on the full scale (r=.89).[4]

The BMS has the advantage of assessing attitudes towards masculinity without comparison to women and includes a broad range of masculinity standards, while it has the disadvantage of not assessing other attitudes e.g. towards male privilege or sexuality.[5]


  1. ^ Carole A. Beere (1990). "Gender Roles: A Handbook of Tests and Measures". pgs. 437-440.
  2. ^ Brannon, R., Juni, S. (1984). A scale for measuring attitudes about masculinity. Psychological Documents, 14, 6-7.
  3. ^ Ronald F. Levant, William S. Pollack. "A New Psychology Of Men".
  4. ^ Thompson, E. H., Grisanti, C., & Pleck, J. H. (1985). Attitudes toward the male role and their correlates. Sex Roles, 13(7-8), 413-427.
  5. ^ Thompson, E. H., Pleck, J. H., & Ferrera, D. L. (1992). Men and masculinities: Scales for masculinity ideology and masculinity-related constructs. Sex roles, 27(11-12), 573-607.[1]