Bai Hu Tong Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bai_Hu_Tong

Bai Hu Tong (Chinese: 白虎通; pinyin: Báihǔ Tōng, also 白虎通義, 白虎通德論) is a Confucian text based on the White Tiger Hall Conference [zh] held in 79 CE.


The traditional view of this text is that it was compiled by Ban Gu (32–92 CE) on the orders of the Emperor Zhang of Han (57-88 CE). The name is derived from the White Tiger Hall (白虎觀) in the Northern Palace [zh] of Luoyang (the capital) where a series of discussions took place in 79 CE, on the subject of the true meanings of the classics.[1] The discussions covered a broad range of topics including rites, politics, cosmology, and philosophy. Ban Gu is said to have edited the records of these discussions, and from them to have produced the book we have today. Some scholars have suggested that the book may in fact be made up of material produced as late as the 3rd century CE, rather than being the product of Ban Gu's work in recording the discussions of 79.[2]


  1. ^ Twitchett and Loewe (1978). Cambridge History of China: vol 1, the Ch'in and Han empires. Cambridge University Press. pp. 763–764. ISBN 0 521 21447 5.
  2. ^ Loewe, Michael (1993). Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Society for the Study of Early China. pp. 347–356. ISBN 1-55729-043-1.

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