mic_none

Anti-Korean sentiment Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Korean_sentiment

Results of 2017 BBC World Service poll.
Views of South Korea's influence by country[1]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 China
25%
71%
2 −46
 Germany
11%
32%
57 −21
 Spain
24%
42%
34 −18
 Brazil
36%
46%
18 −10
 Indonesia
37%
46%
40 −9
 Mexico
36%
42%
22 −6
 Greece
24%
29%
47 −5
 Pakistan
19%
22%
59 −3
 India
27%
28%
45 −1
 Peru
37%
37%
26 0
 Kenya
34%
34%
32 0
 France
45%
44%
11 1
Global average
37%
36%
27 1
 Turkey
39%
33%
28 6
 Nigeria
44%
34%
22 10
 Canada
47%
36%
17 11
 United Kingdom
52%
40%
8 12
 Russia
32%
20%
48 12
 United States
51%
33%
16 18
 Australia
61%
24%
15 37
Results of 2017 BBC World Service poll.
Views of North Korea's influence by country[1]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 United States
5%
88%
7 −83
 United Kingdom
7%
89%
4 −82
 Australia
6%
87%
7 −81
 France
9%
85%
6 −76
 Canada
10%
81%
9 −71
 Spain
5%
75%
20 −70
 Greece
6%
64%
30 −58
 China
19%
76%
5 −57
 Germany
1%
56%
43 −55
Global average
17%
59%
24 −42
 Brazil
23%
60%
17 −37
 Mexico
24%
54%
22 −30
 Peru
22%
51%
27 −29
 Indonesia
17%
46%
37 −29
 India
19%
40%
41 −21
 Turkey
34%
44%
22 −10
 Russia
20%
30%
50 −10
 Nigeria
33%
42%
25 −9
 Kenya
27%
36%
37 −9
 Pakistan
20%
25%
55 −5

Anti-Korean sentiment involves hatred or dislike that is directed towards Korean people, culture or either of the two states (North Korea or South Korea) on the Korean Peninsula.

Origins[edit]

Anti-Korean sentiment is present in China,[2] Japan, and even within both Koreas, and stems from such issues as nationalism, politics, economic competition, cultural influences, and historical disputes. Anti-North Korean sentiment may be the strongest in Japan, South Korea, and the United States.

History[edit]

In China, it has only come to prominence recently, due to issues such as the 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay; which have accumulated along with other issues over the years.

In Japan, modern dislike of North and South Korea can be seen as a form of political and historical issues; these issues are heightened by the North Korean abductions of Japanese citizens and the Liancourt Rocks dispute, respectively.

Within Korea, distrust between the two states have existed ever since the end of the Korean War; with the earliest accounts dating from the Korean DMZ Conflict in the 1960s.

Region-based sentiment[edit]

China[edit]

Korea and China have historically maintained complicated ties.[3][4] When Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan in 1910, it fell under Japanese influence. In China it is believed that some ethnic Koreans served in the Imperial Japanese Army whose invasion of China launched the Second Sino-Japanese War in July 1937.[citation needed] Adding to this sentiment is the allegation that some Koreans reportedly operated the Burma-Siam Death Railway.[5][6] The Chinese referred to Koreans as Er guizi (Chinese: 二鬼子; pinyin: èr guǐzi).[7]

At the end of World War II, North Korea, which was aligned with the Soviet bloc, became an ally of the People's Republic of China, while the PRC and the Republic of Korea did not recognize each other. During the Korean War, when China was engaged in war with South Korea and its United Nations allies, propaganda was used to indoctrinate people into hating South Korea, which was called a "puppet state" of the United States by the PRC government of the time.[citation needed]

From 1992 onward, after South Korea's normalization of relations with China, the relationship between the two nations gradually improved. From 2000 onward, Korean popular culture became popular within China.[citation needed]

A February 2021 survey conducted by scholars from Rice University, the University of British Columbia, and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy had 43% of Chinese respondents expressing an unfavourable view of South Korea, compared to 49% expressing a favourable view.[8]

Taiwan[edit]

Within Taiwan, some existing animosity towards Koreans amongst Taiwanese may be present as a result of the rivalry between the two states in relation to baseball.[9][10] Disputes between Taiwan and Korea in the international sport competition arose numerous times.

In November 2010, Taiwanese citizens protested against the disqualification of Taekwondo athlete Yang Shu-chun at the 2010 Asian Games after a Korean-Filipino referee[11][12] disqualified a Taiwanese fighter.[13] Images and messages deriding South Korean products and culture were widely shared online. There were reports of restaurants displaying ‘No Koreans’ signs on their doors, and protesters burning the Korean flag or destroying South Korean products.[14]

On 23 August 1992, South Korea's "Nordpolitik" (Northern diplomacy) have made it to establish a diplomatic ties with the People's Republic of China after Soviet Union. This resulted in the change in the diplomatic relationship of South Korea with the Republic of China, since it replaced anti-communist foreign policy with an effort to improve relations with other surrounding countries in the sense of geopolitics, including the People's Republic of China, in order to pressure and appease North Korea that eases the political anxiety and softens military tension in the Korean Peninsula and enables the possibility of a peaceful reunification of Korea. As normalization begun, President Roh transferred diplomatic recognition from the ROC to PRC, and confiscated the property of the ROC embassy, transferring it to the PRC.[15]

According to an official from the Korean trade office in Taipei, sales of Korean products are not very successful in Taiwan because "the Taiwanese felt very betrayed after Korea severed diplomatic ties with Taiwan and reestablished ties with China in 1992, because the people of Taiwan had seen Korea as an ally in the fight against Communism... Now because the two countries have similar export-oriented economies and focus on the same business sectors, the Taiwanese see Korea as a great rival, and think that losing to Korea would be the end of Taiwan."[16]

In June 2012, CEO of Foxconn Terry Gou stated that he had "great esteem for Japanese (businessmen), especially those who are able to disagree with you in person and not stab you in the back, unlike the Gaoli bangzi (a racial slur for Koreans)", sparking controversy.[17]

Japan[edit]

Historically, relations between Japan and Korea have been poor.[18] And much of the modern anti-Korean sentiment can largely stem towards the far-right groups.

During the Joseon Dynasty, Wokou pirate raids on Korean soil were frequent, which would eventually form the basis of hatred between the two sides. Such tensions built up further after the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910.[citation needed]

During the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, widespread damage occurred in a region with a significant Korean population, and much of the local Japanese overreacted to rumors which spread after the earthquake.[19] Within the aftermath of the event, there was a common perception amongst some groups of Japanese that ethnic Koreans were poisoning wells, eventually setting off a set of killings against Koreans, where Japanese would use the shibboleth of ba bi bu be bo (ばびぶべぼ) to distinguish ethnic Koreans from Japanese, as it was assumed that Koreans would be unable to pronounce the line correctly, and instead pronounce them as [pa, pi, pu, pe, po].[20] All people who failed the test were killed[citation needed], which caused many ethnic Chinese , also unable to correctly pronounce the shibboleth, to be indiscriminately killed in large numbers. Other shibboleths used were "jū-go-en, go-jū-ssen" (15円 50銭, 15 yen, 50 sen) and "gagigugego" (がぎぐげご), where Japanese people pronounce initial g as [ɡ] and medial g as [ŋ] (such a distinction is dying out in recent years), whereas Koreans pronounce the two sounds as [k] and [ɡ] respectively.[citation needed]

Much of the anti-Korean sentiment present today however deals with contemporary attitudes.[citation needed] During the 2002 FIFA World Cup, Japanese and Korean supporters clashed with one another. Both sides were also known to post racist messages against each other on online bulletins. There were also disputes regarding how the event was to be hosted, as a result of the rivalry between the two nations. The territorial dispute over Liancourt Rocks also fuels outrage. Manga Kenkanryu (often referred to as Hating the Korean Wave) by Sharin Yamano discusses these issues while making many other arguments and claims against Korea.

Zainichi Koreans in Japan are also publicly perceived to be a nuisance[21] and are seen as likely to cause trouble and start riots, a view shared by former Tokyo Governor Shintaro Ishihara. A Zainichi organisation which has strong ties to the DPRK, Chongryon, is commonly accused of providing funding and material to North Korea and indoctrinating the Zainichi Korean population to actively hate Japan.[citation needed]

Some right-wing groups in Japan today have targeted ethnic Koreans living within Japan. One such group, known as Zaitokukai, is organized by members on the Internet, and has led street demonstrations against Korean schools.[22]

There is also much concern in Japan regarding North Korea and its nuclear and long-range missile capabilities, as a result of missile tests in 1993, 1998 and 2006 and an underground nuclear test in 2006. There are also controversies regarding North Korean abductions of Japanese, where Japanese citizens were abducted by North Korean agents during the 1970s and 1980s.[23]

The Korean Wave, or the exportation of South Korean pop culture, has created some negative feelings among pockets of Japanese society. Many Japanese citizens with conservative views and some right-wing nationalist groups have organized anti-Korean Wave demonstrations via 2channel. On 9 August 2011, more than 2,000 protesters demonstrated in front of Fuji TV's headquarters in Odaiba, Tokyo against the broadcasting of Korean dramas.[24] Earlier, in July 2011, well-known actor Sousuke Takaoka was fired from his agency, Stardust Promotion, for tweeting criticisms against the influx of Korean dramas.[25] The general perception of Koreans on 2channel is negative, with users depicting them as a violent, unethical, and irrational people who are a 'threat' to Japan.[26] Users often reference stereotypes of Koreans, such as the use of dogs in Korean cuisine.[27]

On April 2014, several anti-Korean stickers were found posted at 13 locations along the Shikoku Pilgrimage route; the stickers were denounced by a spokesman from the Shikoku 88 Temple Pilgrimage Association.[28]

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, Japanese people alike hold the largest anti-North Korean sentiment in the world, with 91% negative views of North Korea's influence, and with only 1% positive view making Japan the third country with the most negative feelings of North Korea in the world, after South Korea and the United States.

There are some efforts to create mutual understanding and friendship between people in two countries from dialogue, cultural exchange, and education.[29][30][31][32]

Within Korea[edit]

Since the end of World War II, the relationship between both North Korea and South Korea have been hostile. The two nations fought against each other in the Korean War, which ended with an armistice agreement in 1953 without a peace treaty. Due to differing political systems and views, both nations claim the entire Korean Peninsula and have competed for sovereignty.

The late 1960s is when tensions between the two states were at its highest point. In 1968, North Korean forces attempted to assassinate the South Korean president, Park Chung-hee. Although the assassination attempt failed, the South Korean government responded by sending in a black operations unit to assassinate the North Korean president, Kim Il-Sung. Further issues have followed during the Uljin–Samcheok Landings, when North Korea established guerrilla camps in the Taebaek Mountains to subdue Park Chung-hee's regime and bring about the reunification of Korea. Although the plan failed, Anti-North Korean attitudes have risen in South Korea, when North Korean commandos allegedly executed Lee Seung-bok, a 9- or 10-year-old South Korean boy, when Lee responded "I hate communists".[33]

Constant naval skirmishes frequently occur between the two states, with North Korea targeting South Korean naval bases. The Bombardment of Yeonpyeong was cited by former UN ambassador Bill Richardson to be "the most serious crisis on the Korean peninsula since the 1953 armistice".[34]

Within North Korea, negative views of South Korea have persisted ever since President Lee Myung-bak abandoned the Sunshine Policy. North Korea has also been known to violently oppose South Korea's support for the United States military presence in the peninsula.

Within South Korea, negative views result from North Korea's nuclear tests and occasional defectors entering the country. According to a 2014 BBC World Service poll, 3% of South Koreans viewed North Korea's influence positively, with 91% expressing a negative view, making South Korea, after Japan, the country with the most negative feelings of North Korea in the world.[35]

Mongolia[edit]

Some South Korean men take sex tourism trips to Mongolia, often as clients of South Korean-run businesses in Mongolia, which has also sparked anti-Korean sentiment among Mongolians, and is said to be responsible for the increasing number of assaults on South Korean nationals in the country.[36]

Philippines[edit]

In the recent years, there has been an increasing number of Koreans migrating to the Philippines. An issue is that Koreans are perceived by many locals as rude and refusing to integrate into Philippine society.[37] Another concern is how South Korean tour operators prohibit South Korean tourists from doing business with local tourist firms, which means that the latter barely if at all benefit from the increase in tourists coming from the country. Ethnographic fieldwork done in Sabang from 2003 to 2015 found that the influx of Koreans was viewed negatively by some locals and resident Westerners.[38] South Koreans were also identified in 2007 as the top violator of immigration laws according to the Philippine Bureau of Immigration.[39]

The participation of conscripted Korean soldiers serving under the Japanese Empire's flag in the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in the World War II has caused some Filipinos, especially those from the older generations, to associate the Koreans with atrocities committed during the war.[40]

Foreigners, generally, in the Philippines have been scrutinized for the use of a marketing strategy dubbed as pinoy baiting.[41] The strategy refers to the insincere usage, appropriation, and acknowledgment of Filipino culture by foreigners to pander to a Filipino audience. Many Korean social media influencers have been accused of pinoy-baiting.[42]

Racist, poor, and biased Korean media portrayal of Filipinos in movies such as Wandeuki (Punch), and negative treatment of Filipino-born or Filipino-raised celebrities living in South Korea, such as politician Jasmine Lee and entertainer Sandara Park, have worsened Filipino views of Koreans.[43] In an interview, Sandara Park stated, "[Filipinos] are really gentle. I feel upset because the Korean media only reports crime [when talking about the Philippines]."[44]

#CancelKorea[edit]

In September 2020, Filipino TikTok star Bella Poarch posted a video of herself dancing, in which Japan's rising sun flag could be seen tattooed on her arm. Koreans swarmed the comments section saying the tattoo was offensive and that she should apologize and get it removed.[45]

Shortly after backlash and criticism from her video, Bella posted a comment of apology on TikTok : "I’m very sorry if my tattoo offends you," she wrote. "I love Korea, please forgive me." Additionally, her caption read, "I would never do anything to hurt anyone." Bella also explained that she got the tattoo back in March 2020 but had it scheduled for removal. She also promised to learn more about the symbol's history and help educate people further on the symbol, but has been unable to remove the tattoo as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Despite the apology, some Korean users continued with hostile comments, attacking Filipinos referring to them as poor, slaves, ugly, and uneducated, as well as making racist remarks. The issue soon spilled over Twitter, sparking an argument on racism and the long history between South Korea and the Philippines. Along with #CancelKorea, the hashtags #ApologizeToFilipinos including #CancelRacism and #한국취소 (meaning Cancel Korea, or in Hanja: #韓國取消) also trended with Twitter, with Filipino users airing out their anger at the mockery and insults.[46]

However, the anger was relieved when other Korean netizens apologized on behalf of the racist remarks, spreading the hashtag '미안해요 필리핀 (#SorryToFillipinos)'. From these apologies, some Filipinos suggested to change the hashtag #CancelKorea to #CancelRacism.[47] Some Filipino netizens went out to apologize for the racist remarks made against the Koreans during the spat, using the hashtag #SorryToKoreans and accepting the apology.[48][49]

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, Anti-Korean sentiment emerged in the 2000s. The emergence of anti-Korean sentiment is caused by several factors, such as plastic surgery and atheism in South Korea. Some Indonesians call Koreans "plastic".[50] This stereotype arises because of the popularity of plastic surgery in South Korea.[51] This stereotype has strengthened since the suicide of the former member of Shinee, Jonghyun.[52] In addition, there are assumptions that Korean drama lovers are infidels and people of Korea always committing adultery.[53][54] It was reported in 2013 that some Bali businesses had put up signs prohibiting Korean customers, due to reports that a number of them flouted regulations during their stay.[55][56]

In 2021, a South Korean man allegedly launched racist attack against Indonesian woman on social media, this sparked anger among Indonesian public and triggered further anti-Korean sentiment in the country.[57] also in that year, A Korean internet personality living in the country named SunnyDahye also under fire by Indonesian people due to her past comments calling Indonesians are "stupid" and she also allegedly pretended to fast during the month of Ramadhan, the live coverage of the 2020 Olympics in garnered ire to some Indonesians after MBC mistakenly setting a picture of the map of Malaysia when the Indonesian contingent arrives at the opening ceremony.[citation needed]

Thailand[edit]

The popularity of the Korean wave in Thailand has led some Thai authorities to cast it as a threat to local culture.[58] Some locals in 2017 reportedly began to perceive Hallyu negatively or as a form of cultural imperialism.[59]

Former Soviet Union[edit]

During the era of the Soviet Union, ethnic Koreans in the Russian Far East were subject to deportations under the national delimitation policy, with the majority of Koreans relocating to Soviet republics in Central Asia.[60]

The deportation was preceded by a typical Soviet scenario of political repression: falsified trials of local party leaders accused of insurrection, accusations of plans of the secession of the Far Eastern Krai, local party purges, and articles in Pravda about the Japanese espionage in the Far East.[61]

The resettlement plans were revived with new vigor in August 1937, ostensibly with the purpose of suppressing "the penetration of the Japanese espionage into the Far Eastern Krai". This time, however, the direction of resettlement was westward, to Soviet Central Asia. From September to October 1937, more than 172,000 Soviet Koreans were deported from the border regions of the Russian Far East to Kazakh SSR and Uzbek SSR (the latter including Karakalpak ASSR).[62][63]

United States[edit]

During the Korean War, the United States fought in alliance with South Korea against North Korea. Since the war, United States' citizens have viewed North Korea in an unfavourable light.

Following North Korea's heavy re-militarization and a series of missile tests, Americans were conditioned to fear a possible attack by a "rogue state" such as North Korea. In United States President George W. Bush's State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002, he described North Korea as a part of the "Axis of evil". Following the development of the nuclear program of North Korea and the 2006 North Korean nuclear test, the United States imposed UN sanctions on North Korea. These economic sanctions are very unlikely to be lifted by the United States due to North Korea's noncompliance with the six-party talk agreements.[citation needed]

From 1988 until 2008, and since November 2017, North Korea has been designated a state sponsor of terrorism for supporting Hamas and Hezbollah against Israel,[64] their role in the murder of Kim Jong-nam, supporting dictator Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian Civil War, close relationships with Iran, and the suspicious death of Otto Warmbier.[citation needed]

The Los Angeles riots of 1992 were partially motivated by Anti-Korean sentiment among African-Americans. Ice Cube's song "Black Korea" which would later be accused of inciting racism was written in response to the death of 15-year-old African-American Latasha Harlins, who was shot and killed by Korean-American store owner Soon Ja Du on March 16, 1991, as well as the preponderance of Korean grocery stores in primarily black neighborhoods.[65] The event resulted in the mass ransacking and destruction of Korean-American owned stores in Los Angeles by groups of young African-Americans.[66]

Italy[edit]

In early 2020, a leading Italian music school banned all East Asian students from attending classes due to coronavirus fear, with South Koreans the largest nationality being affected.[67][68] South Korean students also describe being barred from the building and being mocked by other students because of their origin. In addition, some South Korean residents have reported fear of leaving their homes amid rising incidents of discrimination and mockery, and others considered leaving Italy because they could not "stay in a place that hates us".[69]

Israel[edit]

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, South Korean tourists were instructed to avoid public places and remain in isolation in their hotels.[70] The Israeli military announced its intention to quarantine South Korean nationals to a military base.[71] Many of the remaining South Koreans were rejected by hotels and were forced to spend nights at Ben Gurion Airport.[72] An Israeli newspaper subsequently published a Korean complaint that "Israel is Treating [Korean and other Asian] Tourists Like Coronavirus".[73] South Korean Foreign Minister Kang Kyung-wha has described Israel's response as "excessive".[74]

Germany[edit]

Many Koreans residents in Germany have reported an increase in anti-Korean incidents following the outbreak of COVID-19, and the South Korean embassy has warned its citizens of the increasing hateful climate facing them.[75] As suspicion toward Koreans is growing, locals are also opting to avoid Korean restaurants, some of which have reported a sales decline of 80%.[76]

Netherlands[edit]

KLM, the country's flag carrier airline, prohibited only Korean passengers from using their toilets on one of their flights.[77]

In general, there has recently been a spate of anti-Korean incidents in the Netherlands, which have targeted both Korean nationals and Dutch people of Korean descent. These incidents range from vandalism of homes to violent assault to harassment. More than 150 Korean expat respondents in an online survey indicated they had experienced an xenophobic incident.[78][79]

Brazil[edit]

Despite the popularity of South Korean culture in Brazil among young people, as part of the Korean Wave,[80] a certain anti-Korean feeling persisted and some anti-Korean incidents occurred in Brazil.[81] In 2017, the Brazilian television host Raul Gil was accused of racism and xenophobia when making derogatory jokes to asians and a "slit eye" gesture during a live interview with the K-Pop group K.A.R.D, generating repercussions in the Brazilian press and abroad.[82][83][84] In 2019, a Brazilian couple published several videos on social media making fun of Korean food and language during a trip to South Korea. The case generated harsh criticism on social media.[85]

Derogatory terms[edit]

There are a variety of derogatory terms referring to Korea. Many of these terms are viewed as racist. However, these terms do not necessarily refer to the Korean people as a whole; they can also refer to specific policies, or specific time periods in history.

In Filipino (Tagalog)[edit]

  • Retoke Koreano – literally "plastic Korean" referring to South Korea's high rates of plastic surgery.[86]

In English[edit]

  • Gook – a derogatory term used by occupying US military to refer to native people, mainly Asians.[87] The etymology of this racial slur is shrouded in mystery, disagreement, and controversy. The Oxford English Dictionary admits that its origin is "unknown" but traces its usage through US military deployments in the Philippines, Korea, and Vietnam,[88] while other sources record it during the occupation of Haiti.[89] A widespread urban legend holds that it derives from the Korean term 미국/美國, miguk, meaning "America", which American soldiers interpreted as "me gook", or from other variants involving the word for country, guk.
  • Kimchi – derogatory term for Koreans derived from the Korean dish of the same name.[90]

In Chinese[edit]

  • Gaoli bangzi (Simplified Chinese: 高丽棒子; Traditional Chinese:高麗棒子; pinyin: gāolì bàngzǐ) – derogatory term used against all ethnic Koreans. Gaoli refers to ancient Korea (Goryeo), while bangzi means "club" or "corncob", referring to how traditional Korean clothing supposedly had trousers that resembled a corn fitting into its cob.[citation needed] There are other various etymologies; some suggest that the term originates from Taiwan as a result of its baseball rivalry with South Korea, where 棒子 refers to a baseball bat; another explanation refers to the Second Sino-Japanese War, where ethnic Koreans in the Imperial Japanese Army were unarmed, and hence beat civilians with sticks and clubs in occupied areas. Sometimes 韓棒子 (hán bàng zǐ, "韓" referring to South Korea) and 死棒子 (sǐ bàng zǐ, literally "dead corncob") are also used.[91][92]
  • Gaoli paocai (Traditional Chinese: 高麗泡菜; pinyin: gāolì pàocài) – literally "Goryeo kimchi" or "Korean kimchi", which makes a reference to kimchi, a Korean staple food. Used by Taiwanese baseball fans, as a result of their rivalry against South Korea, where Taiwan is commonly defeated by the South Korean national team. Variants include 死泡菜 ("dead kimchi").[citation needed]
  • Er guizi (Simplified Chinese: 二鬼子; pinyin: èr guǐzi) – a disparaging designation of puppet armies and traitors during the Chinese War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression.[93][94] As with the term hanjian, the definition of 二鬼子 has varied throughout history. Japanese were known as "鬼子" (devils), and 二鬼子 literally translates into "second devils". During World War II, some Koreans served in the Imperial Japanese Army, so 二鬼子 refers to hanjian (i.e. Chinese who collaborated with the Japanese) and ethnic Koreans. During the Chinese Civil War, both the Chinese Communist Party and Kuomintang accused each other of being hanjian, and the term 二鬼子 was then applied to the Kuomintang by the communists. More recently, 二鬼子 mainly refers to South Koreans. In addition to the historical background of World War II era, Koreans are perceived as resembling Japanese in their appearance and popular culture.

In Japanese[edit]

  • Chon (チョン) – vernacular nickname for Koreans, with strongly offensive overtones.[95] Various suggested etymologies exist; one such etymology is that it is an abbreviation of Chōsen (朝鮮), a Japanese term for Korea.[96]
  • Kimchi yarō (キムチ野郎 / キムチ埜郞, Kimuchi yarō) – literally "kimchi bastard". In 2003, Mongolian sumo wrestler Asashōryū was taking interviews from journalists when he called a Korean journalist a "kimchi yarō", sparking controversy.[97][98] The phrase became a sensation on the 2channel messageboard overnight following the incident.
  • Chōsenjin (朝鮮人, Chōsenjin) – derived from the non-derogatory term Chōsenjin (朝鮮人) used to describe Koreans in a neutral manner.[99] The term, however, has eventually been used in a derogatory manner against Korean people.[100]
  • Tokuajin (特亜人 / 特亞人, Tokuajin) – meaning "Tokutei (East) Asian". A derogatory term used against Koreans and Chinese.

In Korean[edit]

  • Korean헬조선, Hanja:헬朝鮮; RRHell Joseon – literally "Hell Korea" – a satirical South Korean term that criticizes the current socioeconomic state of South Korea. This term is used by South Korean people to criticize themselves. It can be seen quite often in online comments for South Korean articles about issues of their society.[citation needed]
  • Korean빨갱이; RRPpalgaengi – literally "Commies", "Reds" or "Communist supporter" – a South Korean term used to insult North Korea or anyone who shows appreciation to North Korea. This term has become more commonplace, especially towards the South Korean president Moon Jae-in, who is known for his pro North Korean policies.[101]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "2017 BBC World Service poll" (PDF). BBC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
    Compared to the 2014 poll, the 2017 poll included Greece and excluded Argentina, Chile, Ghana, Israel, Japan, and South Korea.
  2. ^ 韓總統:必須明智解決中國反韓情緒- 香港文匯報
  3. ^ (in Chinese)http://www.cass.net.cn/file/20080909197045.html Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine 推动“中韩战略合作伙伴关系”迈出坚定一步, 中国社会科学院院报, 2008-9-9
  4. ^ (in Chinese)http://realtime.zaobao.com/2007/04/070410_21.html Archived 2007-05-20 at the Wayback Machine 温家宝:巩固发展中韩关系是中国坚定方针, 联合早报网, 2007-04-10 --"...温家宝在出访前接受记者采访时说,中韩有着数千年的友好交往史。"
  5. ^ Historical Fact on the Burma Death Railroad Thailand Hellfire pass Prisoners conditions Archived 2008-08-20 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Spared Korean war criminal pursues redress – The Japan Times Online
  7. ^ 第一滴血──從日方史料還原平型關之戰日軍損失 (6) News of the Communist Party of China December 16, 2011
  8. ^ Adam Y. Liu, Xiaojun Li, Songying Fang (March 13, 2021). "What Do Chinese People Think of Developed Countries? 2021 Edition". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 2021-03-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ 23 March 2009, 李祖杰, 不瞭解韓國 休想贏韓國, UDN運動大聯盟
  10. ^ 22 August 2006, 沒品的韓國人 台中力行少棒隊20分痛宰對手竟遭禁賽, NOW News
  11. ^ Jiyeon Kang; Jae-On Kim; Yan Wang (February 7, 2013). "Salvaging national pride: The 2010 taekwondo controversy and Taiwan's quest for global recognition (page 8)". International Review for the Sociology of Sport. University of Iowa. doi:10.1177/1012690212474264. S2CID 145354420.
  12. ^ "糟糕!页面找不到". Archived from the original on 2020-04-04. Retrieved 2010-12-16.
  13. ^ "Taiwan protests controversial taekwondo DQ". 2010-11-19.
  14. ^ Jiyeon Kang; Jae-On Kim; Yan Wang (February 7, 2013). "Salvaging national pride: The 2010 taekwondo controversy and Taiwan's quest for global recognition (page 9)". International Review for the Sociology of Sport. University of Iowa. doi:10.1177/1012690212474264. S2CID 145354420.
  15. ^ [中華民國外交部 1992年外交公報]
  16. ^ "Taiwan Embraces Korean Culture, But Not Goods". Chosun Ilbo. 6 July 2009.
  17. ^ "郭台銘:與夏普合作有信心打敗三星". Chosun Ilbo. 2012-06-20. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  18. ^ Tong, Kurt W, Anti-Korean sentiment in Japan and its effects on Korea-Japan trade, Center for International Studies, MIT Japan Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996
  19. ^ Weiner, Michael A. (1989). The origins of the Korean community in Japan, 1910–1923. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 164–188. ISBN 978-0-7190-2987-5.
  20. ^ Cybriwsky, Roman (1991). Tokyo: The Changing Profile of an Urban Giant. London: Belhaven Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-85293-054-7.
  21. ^ Brett Fujioka, Go: Japanese Anti-Korean Sentiment Personified, 4/23/08 Archived February 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Martin Fackler, August 28, 2010, New Dissent in Japan Is Loudly Anti-Foreign, New York Times
  23. ^ "Abductions of Japanese Citizens by North Korea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  24. ^ "Japan's alt-right groups hold rallies vs. Korean pop culture". Dong-A Ilbo. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  25. ^ "Hundreds of Japanese Protest Against Korean Wave". Chosun Ilbo. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  26. ^ Rumi Sakamoto (March 7, 2011). "'Koreans, Go Home!' Internet Nationalism in Contemporary Japan as a Digitally Mediated Subculture". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. University of Auckland.
  27. ^ Mclelland, Mark (December 2008). "'Race' on the Japanese internet: discussing Korea and Koreans on '2-channeru'". New Media and Society. 10 (6): 811–829. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.691.4872. doi:10.1177/1461444808096246. S2CID 10037117.
  28. ^ "Anti-Korean stickers posted at several points along Shikoku pilgrimage route". Japan Today. April 11, 2014. Archived from the original on April 6, 2022.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-05-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ "Republic of Korea Presents its Hwa-Gwan Order of Cultural Merit | Daisaku Ikeda Website".
  31. ^ "South Korean Literary Association Honors Daisaku Ikeda | Daisaku Ikeda Website".
  32. ^ "Korean Traditional Music Association Presents Commendation | Daisaku Ikeda Website". Archived from the original on 2014-08-29. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
  33. ^ "Lonely funeral of Lee Seung-boks father". THE DONG-A ILBO Logo. 29 August 2014.
  34. ^ "Richardson presents proposals to North Korea aimed at easing crisis". CNN. 18 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-18.
  35. ^ 2014 World Service Poll Archived 2015-03-05 at the Wayback Machine BBC
  36. ^ "In Mongolia, sex tourism by S. Korean males leads to anti-Korean sentiment". The Hankyoreh. 2008-07-15. Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  37. ^ Pack, Sam (2020-06-01). ""Fucking Koreans!": Sexual Relations and Immigration in the Philippines". Slovenský národopis. Kenyon College. 68 (2): 161–174. doi:10.2478/se-2020-0009. ISSN 1339-9357. S2CID 220634076 – via Sciendo.
  38. ^ Mari-Elina EKOLUOMA (2020). "Receiving a New Kind of Others: Korean Tourism in the Philippines (page 5)" (PDF). Asian Studies: Journal of Critical Perspectives on Asia. University of the Philippines Diliman. 56.
  39. ^ Jet Damazo (11 July 2007). "Korea Invades the Philippines". Asia Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
  40. ^ Polo, Lily Ann (1984). A Cold War Alliance:Philippine-South Korean Relations 1948–1971. Philippines: Asian Center. p. 64.
  41. ^ "To catch a Pinoy".
  42. ^ "OPINION: A look into Pinoy baiting and its gray areas". 21 August 2021.
  43. ^ "Jasmine Lee faces racial backlash". 15 April 2012.
  44. ^ "#CancelKorea hashtag for racist Koreans on social media in the Philippines has appeared". 10 September 2020.
  45. ^ "#CancelKorea? Why it's trending and what Filipinos are saying". ABS-CBN News. 9 September 2020.
  46. ^ "Filipinos angered by racist comments from internet users in Korea". The Korea Times. 10 September 2020.
  47. ^ "'캔슬코리아'에 '미안해요 필리핀' 사과하는 한국인들". 서울경제 (in Korean). 2020-09-11. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  48. ^ Network, The Korea Herald/Asia News (2020-09-13). "Racist remarks on Filipinos stir anger on social media". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  49. ^ 민영규 (2020-09-11). "성숙한 한국·필리핀 네티즌…인종차별 발언 갈등 봉합". 연합뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  50. ^ "Ini Pendapat Mengejutkan Orang Korea Soal Operasi Plastik di Negaranya".
  51. ^ "'Above Normal': South Korea's Plastic Surgery Boom". 18 September 2019.
  52. ^ "Sindir Kematian Jonghyun SHINee, Akun ini Dimarahi Shawol". 20 December 2017.
  53. ^ https://m.detik.com/hot/celeb/d-4697835/ustaz-abdul-somad-sebut-penonton-drama-korea-bagian-dari-kafir[dead link]
  54. ^ "Sebut Drama Korea Kafir, Ustaz Abdul Somad: Mereka Belum Sunat".
  55. ^ 김종원 기자 (2013-11-17). "밉상 고객 탓에 '한국인 출입 금지'". Seoul Broadcasting System (in Korean).
  56. ^ STEVE HAN (2013-11-20). "Bali Businesses Ban Annoying Korean Tourists". Character Media.
  57. ^ "Viral Pria Korea Selatan Rasis, Sebut Wanita Indonesia Jelek dan Orang Korsel di Atas Indonesia".
  58. ^ "Warning: This fad may kill you". The World (radio program). 2010.
  59. ^ Ainslie, Mary; Lipura, Sarah; Lim, Joanne (2017-03-20). "Understanding the Potential for a Hallyu "Backlash" in Southeast Asia: A Case Study of Consumers in Thailand, Malaysia and Philippines". Kritika Kultura (28). doi:10.13185/KK2017.02805.
  60. ^ Martin, Terry (1998). The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing. The Journal of Modern History 70 (4), 813–861.
  61. ^ Pavel Polyan, "The Great Terror and deportation policy", Demoscope Weekly, No. 313-314, 10–31 December 2007 (in Russian)
  62. ^ German Kim, "Korean diaspora in Kazakhstan", Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, 1989
  63. ^ "History of deportation of Far Eastern Koreans to Karakalpakstan (1937–1938)" (in Russian)
  64. ^ "Hamas thanks N. Korea for its support against 'Israeli occupation'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  65. ^ Salak, John (1993). The Los Angeles riots : America's cities in crisis. Internet Archive. Brookfield, Conn. : Millbrook Press. ISBN 978-1-56294-373-8.
  66. ^ EDT, Newsweek Staff On 5/10/92 at 8:00 PM (1992-05-10). "The Siege Of L.A." Newsweek. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  67. ^ "'한국인 등 동양 학생 전원 출석 금지'…伊 음악학교 대응 논란". 30 January 2020.
  68. ^ "Rome music school bans all East Asian students from class amid coronavirus fears". 31 January 2020.
  69. ^ "A top European music school suspended students from East Asia over coronavirus concerns, amid rising discrimination - The Washington Post". The Washington Post.
  70. ^ "South Korean gov't summons Israeli diplomat following Israel travel ban". The Jerusalem Post. 23 February 2020.
  71. ^ "IDF to quarantine 200 Koreans in Jerusalem facility over coronavirus fears". www.i24news.tv. 23 February 2020.
  72. ^ staff, T. O. I. (24 February 2020). "South Koreans being shipped out of Israel on special flights amid virus fears". www.timesofisrael.com.
  73. ^ "Israel is Treating Tourists Like Coronavirus". Israel Today. 26 February 2020.
  74. ^ "FM calls Israel's entry ban on Koreans over new coronavirus 'excessive'". The Korea Herald. 25 February 2020.
  75. ^ "[베를린·나] '한국인입니다' 신종 코로나로 맛본 아시아 혐오". 비즈한국 (in Korean). 2020-02-06. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  76. ^ "코로나 공포에 드러난 '인종차별'". tv.zum.com (in Korean). 2020-02-16. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  77. ^ "KLM 네덜란드항공, 인종차별로 불거진 한국인 차별 항공사". www.ttlnews.com. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  78. ^ "Men Yelling "Chinese" Tried To Punch Her Off Her Bike. She's The Latest Victim Of Racist Attacks Linked To Coronavirus". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  79. ^ Misérus, Mark (2020-03-11). "Uitgescholden en bedreigd, want 'alle Chinezen hebben corona'". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  80. ^ França, Beatriz (24 May 2019). "De Psy a BTS: a explosão do K-pop no Brasil vive seu auge". Portal Ig (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  81. ^ Fucuta, Brenda (8 February 2020). ""Somos eternos estrangeiros", diz brasileira que descende de coreanos". Universa (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  82. ^ "Raul Gil é acusado de racismo por mandar asiático 'abrir o olho'". Veja (in Brazilian Portuguese). 19 July 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  83. ^ Devlin, Kayleen (23 July 2017). "TV host's race jokes spark Brazil-Korea online war". BBC News. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  84. ^ Dong-hwan, Ko (21 July 2017). "Brazilian TV host mocks K-pop band with 'slit eyes'". The Korea Times. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  85. ^ Kataoka, Juliana (4 May 2019). "Influencers brasileiros viram notícia na Coreia do Sul por xenofobia". Quicando (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  86. ^ "Ex-Filipino beauty queen ignites firestorm after slamming K-pop, plastic surgery". 24 November 2020.
  87. ^ "John McCain's racist remark very troubling, Thursday, March 2, 2000, Seattle Post-Intelligencer". Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
  88. ^ Interactive Dictionary of Racial Language, Prof. Kim Pearson Archived 2008-07-15 at the Wayback Machine
  89. ^ Roediger, David R. (1994) Toward the Abolition of Whiteness
  90. ^ Everett, Anna. Learning Race and Ethnicity: Youth and Digital Media. MIT press. p. 167.
  91. ^ 【噴水台】高麗棒 2008.08.28JoongAng Ilbo(Japanese)
  92. ^ "THE WORLD; China and North Korea: Not-So-Best of Friends". The New York Times. 1993-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-30.
  93. ^ Comprehensive Chinese-English Dictionary
  94. ^ mdbg Chinese English Dictionary
  95. ^ Prof. Arudou Debito, July 17, 2005, On Racism in Japan: Why One May Be Hopeful for the Future. Hokkaido Information University. Accessed 18 July 2009
  96. ^ Mark J. McLelland, 2008, 'Race' on the Japanese internet: discussing Korea and Koreans on '2-Channeru', New Media & Society, 10(6), 2008, 811–829. Faculty of Arts, University of Wollongong. "The racial insult in posting 101 is further underlined by the choice of user name: ‘bakachon’, a compound comprising baka ("stupid") and chon (an abbreviation of Chōsen, a term for Korea), a once widespread term for simple things, so easy, even ‘stupid Koreans’ could do them (Gottlieb, 2005: 114)".
  97. ^ 2003年5月8日, "朝青龍の侮辱発言、協会はきちんとした対応をとるべき". Archived from the original on June 3, 2003. Retrieved 2017-04-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), SANKEI SPORTS
  98. ^ January 14th, 2006, Asashoryu calls Korean journalist ‘kimchi bastard’ Archived 2011-08-21 at the Wayback Machine, Occidentalism
  99. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  100. ^ Greg Wiggan; Charles Hutchison (2009). Global Issues in Education: Pedagogy, Policy, Practice, and the Minority Experience. R&L Education. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-60709-273-5.
  101. ^ ""가짜 인권주의자 문재인, 빨갱이" 대통령에 신발 던진 남성". 7 August 2020.